Retrograde Cystography

Retrograde Cystography

(Cystography - Retrograde)

Procedure overview

What is retrograde cystography?

Retrograde cystography is a diagnostic procedure that uses X-rays to examine the urinary bladder. X-rays are made of the bladder after it has been filled with a contrast dye. Contrast refers to a substance taken into the body that causes the particular organ or tissue under study to be seen more clearly. This examination allows the doctor to assess the bladder’s structure and integrity.

During retrograde cystography, contrast dye is injected into the bladder. X-rays are taken of the bladder while it's filled with contrast and after the contrast has drained out of the bladder. Retrograde cystography may show rupture of the bladder, as well as other bladder conditions such as tumors, blood clots, or diverticula (pouches in the wall of the bladder).

What are X-rays?

X-rays use invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs on film. X-rays are made by using external radiation to produce images of the body, its organs, and other internal structures for diagnostic purposes. X-rays pass through body structures onto specially-treated plates (similar to camera film) and a "negative" type picture is made (the more solid a structure is, the whiter it appears on the film).

Other related procedures that may be used to diagnose problems of the bladder include kidney, ureters, and bladder (KUB) X-rays, CT (computed tomography) scan of the kidneys, kidney scan, renal angiogram, renal ultrasound, cystography, pyelogram (intravenous, antegrade, and retrograde), cystoscopy, cystometry, and uroflowmetry. Please see these procedures for additional information.

How does the urinary system work?

Illustration of the anatomy of the urinary system, front view
Click Image to Enlarge

The body takes nutrients from food and converts them to energy. After the body has taken the food that it needs, waste products are left behind in the bowel and in the blood.

The urinary system keeps the chemicals, such as potassium and sodium, and water in balance, and removes a type of waste, called urea, from the blood. Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.

Urinary system parts and their functions:

Reasons for the procedure

Retrograde cystography may be performed in cases of abdominal trauma to assess whether the urinary bladder has ruptured. Other conditions that may be evaluated by retrograde cystography include neurogenic bladder (a condition in which the nerve supply to the bladder is affected), tumors, vesicoureteric reflux (urine flows backward from the bladder into the ureter), recurring urinary tract infections (UTIs), calculi (stones), bladder fistulae (abnormal connections between tissues), and foreign bodies.

Retrograde cystography may also be used to detect urine leakage from the bladder after bladder surgery.

There may be other reasons for your doctor to recommend retrograde cystography.

Risks of the procedure

You may want to ask your doctor about the amount of radiation used during the procedure and the risks related to your particular situation. It's a good idea to keep a record of your past history of radiation exposure, such as previous scans and other types of X-rays, so that you can inform your doctor. Risks associated with radiation exposure may be related to the cumulative number of X-ray examinations and/or treatments over a long period of time.

If you're pregnant or suspect that you may be pregnant, you should notify your health care provider. Radiation exposure during pregnancy may lead to birth defects.

Patients who are allergic to or sensitive to medications, contrast dyes, local anesthesia, iodine, or latex should notify their doctor.

Patients with kidney failure or other kidney problems should notify their doctor.

Bladder infection may occur as a result of placing a catheter into the bladder for the procedure. Insertion of a catheter into the bladder may also cause bleeding or hematuria.

Situations in which retrograde cystography is contraindicated include, but are not limited to:

There may be other risks depending on your specific medical condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your health care provider prior to the procedure.

Certain factors or conditions may interfere with the results of the test. These may include, but are not limited to:

Before the procedure

During the procedure

A retrograde cystography procedure may be performed on an outpatient basis or as part of your stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your doctor's practices.

Generally, a retrograde cystography follows this process:

  1. You'll be asked to remove any clothing, jewelry, or other objects that might interfere with the procedure.
  2. If you're asked to remove clothing, you'll be given a gown to wear.
  3. You'll be asked to empty your bladder prior to the procedure.
    Illustration of retrograde cystography
    Click Image to Enlarge
  4. You'll lie on your back on the X-ray table.
  5. A catheter will be inserted into your bladder for injection of the contrast dye into the bladder.
  6. A kidney, ureters, and bladder (KUB) X-ray will be taken to verify that the urinary system is visible. With male patients, a lead shield may be placed over the testes to protect the gonads from the X-rays.
  7. The contrast dye will be injected into the bladder through the catheter. After the dye has been injected, the catheter tubing will be clamped to prevent drainage of the dye from the bladder.
  8. X-rays will be taken while the dye is being injected and afterwards. You may be asked to change position for different X-ray views of the urinary system.
  9. The contrast dye will be drained from the bladder, and then one or more X-rays will be made. If required, air may be injected into the bladder prior to additional X-rays being taken.
  10. After all required X-ray views have been taken, the catheter will be removed.

After the procedure

There is no special type of care required after a retrograde cystography. You may resume your usual diet and activities, unless your doctor advises you differently.

You should drink additional fluids for a day or so after the procedure to help eliminate the contrast dye from your system and to help prevent infection of the bladder.

You may experience some mild pain with urination or notice a pink tinge to your urine for a day or two after the procedure. This is to be expected after insertion of the catheter into your bladder. However, if the pain increases or persists longer than two days, notify your doctor.

Notify your doctor to report any of the following:

Your doctor may give you additional or alternate instructions after the procedure, depending on your particular situation.

Online resources

The content provided here is for informational purposes only, and wasn't designed to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease, or replace the professional medical advice you receive from your doctor. Please consult your health care provider with any questions or concerns you may have regarding your condition.

This page contains links to other websites with information about this procedure and related health conditions. We hope you find these sites helpful, but please remember we don't control or endorse the information presented on these websites, nor do these sites endorse the information contained here.

American Cancer Society

American Urological Association

National Cancer Institute

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

National Kidney Foundation

National Library of Medicine

 

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