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24-Hour Urine Protein
24-Hour Urine Protein Does this test have other names? 24-hour albumin test, proteinuria test What is this test? This test measures the amount of protein in your urine. Healthy kidneys usually filter protein out of the blood and absorb the protein. Then they send it back into the blood while waste material is passed out of your body as urine. But when your kidneys aren't working the way they should, protein may pass into your urine. Protein in your urine is a condition called proteinuria, albuminuria, o...
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (Urine)
5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid (Urine) Does this test have other names? 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid urine, 5-HIAA, HIAA What is this test? This test finds out how much 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) is in your urine. Your liver breaks down the hormone serotonin into 5-HIAA. This waste product is normally sent from your body in your urine. Tumors called functioning carcinoids secrete serotonin. Carcinoid tumors are found in the intestinal tract, lungs, appendix, and other body tissues. Why do I need this...
A1C
A1C Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin A1c; HbA1c; glycosylated hemoglobin; glycohemoglobin; Glycated hemoglobin What is this test? A1C is a blood test used to screen people to find out whether they have diabetes or prediabetes. It's also used in people who know they have diabetes to measure how well they are controlling their blood sugar and to guide their treatment decisions over time. Why do I need this test? You may need this test to check for prediabetes or diabetes. If you already know th...
Acetaminophen Drug Level
Acetaminophen Drug Level Does this test have other names? Paracetamol or Tylenol drug level What is this test? The acetaminophen drug level is a blood test used to screen for the presence of the common pain reliever acetaminophen. (Tylenol and paracetamol are among several other names for the same medicine.) This over-the-counter (OTC) medicine is used to treat pain and reduce fever. It is safe and works well in the recommended doses. But dosing mistakes are common. Acetaminophen is also often used in i...
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood)
Acetylcholine Receptor Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Muscle Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor (AChR) Binding Antibody, AChR Antibody, Myasthenia Gravis Antibodies What is this test? This test measures the concentration of a substance called acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody in your blood. AChR antibodies stop the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from doing its job. Acetylcholine carries nerve signals that tell your muscle cells to contract. AChR antibodies are made if you have the ...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture
Acid-Fast Bacteria Culture Does this test have other names? Acid-fast bacillus smear and culture, AFB smear and culture, TB culture and sensitivity, mycobacterial culture What is this test? An acid-fast bacteria (AFB) culture is done to find out if you have tuberculosis (TB) or another mycobacterial infection. Besides tuberculosis, the other main mycobacterial infections are leprosy and a TB-like disease that affects people with HIV/AIDS. To do an AFB culture, health care providers take a sample of phle...
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear
Acid-Fast Bacteria Smear Does this test have other names? AFB smear microscopy, AFB smear, mycobacterial smear What is this test? This test looks for a type of bacteria called acid-fast bacillus in your sputum. Tuberculosis is the most common infection from this type of bacteria. Your sputum sample is collected from mucus coughed up from your lungs. The sample is "smeared" on a glass slide and treated with a special acid-fast stain to look at under a microscope. Why do I need this test? You may need thi...
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time
Activated Partial Thromboplastin Clotting Time Does this test have other names? Intrinsic pathway coagulation factor profile, aPTT, partial thromboplastin time, PTT, blood coagulation tests What is this test? The aPTT is one of several blood coagulation tests. It measures how long it takes your blood to form a clot. Normally, when one of your blood vessels is damaged, proteins in your blood called clotting factors come together in a certain order to form blood clots and quickly stop bleeding. The aPTT t...
Adult Lead (Blood)
Adult Lead (Blood) Does this test have other names? Lead poisoning test, BLL What is this test? This test measures the levels of lead in your blood. High levels of lead can be toxic. Complications include abdominal pain, constipation, a decline in thinking, and high blood pressure. Lead exposure can also cause reproductive problems. Women with high lead levels are more likely to have stillbirths or give birth to infants with lead poisoning. Men may have low sperm counts or abnormal sperm. You may be exp...
Albumin (Blood)
Albumin (Blood) Does this test have other names? ALB What is this test? This test measures the amount of the protein albumin in your blood. Your liver makes albumin. Albumin carries substances such as hormones, drugs, and enzymes throughout your body. This test can help diagnose, evaluate, and watch kidney and liver conditions. When your kidneys begin to fail, albumin starts to leak into your urine. This causes a low albumin level in your blood. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if your he...
Albumin (Urine)
Albumin (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine albumin, 24-hour urine test for albumin What is this test? This test looks for a protein called albumin in your urine. The test is used to check for kidney damage or disease. Albumin helps to keep the right amount of fluid moving through your body. Your kidneys filter toxins from your blood, but they allow proteins to pass through because proteins are useful to your body. Proteins should be reabsorbed in your blood and not be passed out in your urin...
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Does this test have other names? Alpha-1-antiprotease deficiency, alpha-1-antiproteinase inhibitor deficiency, AAT deficiency, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A-1AT) deficiency What is this test? This is a blood test to help find out if liver disorders and lung diseases such as emphysema are caused by a genetic disorder called alpha-1antitrypsin deficiency. This is especially true if they show up much earlier than they normally would. This disorder is linked to abnormally low levels or a lack o...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein, AFAFP test What is this test? This test checks a sample of amniotic fluid. The sample can confirm that your fetus has a birth defect called an open neural tube defect. Spina bifida is an example of a neural tube defect. Amniotic fluid is the liquid that protects and feeds your fetus during pregnancy. When a developing baby has open neural tube defect, it often causes a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (A...
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood)
Alpha-Fetoprotein (Blood) Does this test have other names? msAFP screen What is this test? If you are pregnant, this test looks for a fetal substance called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is a protein made by your fetus' liver. The protein passes through the placenta and into your blood. The test helps find out whether your fetus has higher than normal levels of AFP. Higher levels of AFP may mean that your fetus has an abnormality, such as a neural tube defect or Down syndrome. Neural tube d...
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood)
Alpha-Fetoprotein Tumor Marker (Blood) Does this test have other names? AFP What is this test? This is a blood test to look for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in your blood. AFP is normally made by a fetus's liver and yolk sac. It's the main protein during the first three months of development. AFP greatly decreases by age 1 and should only be found in adults in very low levels. AFP is one of several tumor markers. Tumor markers are molecules in the blood that are higher when a person has certain cancers. AFP ...
ALT
ALT Does this test have other names? Alanine aminotransferase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, SGPT What is this test? This test measures the amount of the enzyme alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in your blood. ALT, formerly called SGPT, is mostly found in your liver cells. When liver cells are injured, they release this enzyme into your blood. High levels are a sign of liver damage. This test is part of a group of tests commonly referred to as "liver function tests." Results of these tests give heal...
Ammonia
Ammonia Does this test have other names? Blood ammonia test, NH3 What is this test? This test checks the level of ammonia in your blood. The test helps find out why you may have changes in consciousness and also helps diagnose a liver disease called hepatic encephalopathy. This disease affects how your brain works, because of excess toxins, or poisons, in your body. Your liver may not work properly if you have high levels of ammonia in your blood. Ammonia is a chemical made by bacteria in your intestine...
Amphetamine Screen (Blood)
Amphetamine Screen (Blood) Does this test have other names? Amphetamine concentrations screen (blood), amphetamine screen (blood) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a drug called amphetamine in your blood. This drug is a central nervous system stimulant. This group of drugs also includes methamphetamine, or "meth." The test is most commonly used to screen for drug abuse. It's often required by the court system and some workplaces. If you show symptoms of an amphetamine overdose, such as...
Amphetamine Screen (Urine)
Amphetamine Screen (Urine) Does this test have other names? Drug test, AMP, toxicology urine screen What is this test? This test looks for amphetamine in your urine. Amphetamine is a drug that stimulates your central nervous system. It can show up in your urine long after you've taken it. Amphetamines include methamphetamine (meth) and phentermine. Amphetamine is a commonly used street drug. It makes users feel very alert and have lots of energy. Stimulants like amphetamine and methamphetamine can also ...
Amylase (Blood)
Amylase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum amylase What is this test? This test measures the level of the enzyme amylase in your blood. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. If you have a pancreatic disorder, your amylase levels are usually higher than normal. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or med...
Amylase (Urine)
Amylase (Urine) Does this test have other names? Amylase What is this test? This test measures how much of the enzyme amylase is in your urine. About 40% of the amylase in your body is made by your pancreas. The rest comes from your salivary glands. This test is used to find out whether your pancreas or your salivary glands are swollen. Your amylase levels are usually higher than normal if you have a problem with your pancreas. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or m...
Anaerobic Culture
Anaerobic Culture Does this test have other names? Wound culture What is this test? This test looks for certain bacteria in a wound or an infection in a fluid sample. These bacteria are called anaerobic because they don't need oxygen to grow. Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria can occur almost anywhere in your body. These may be oral infections, lung infections, diabetes-related foot infections, infected bites, and gangrene. Finding the specific bacteria that's causing your infection helps your hea...
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood)
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum angiotensin converting enzyme, SACE What is this test? This test measures how much angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is in your blood. Your ACE levels may be higher if you have a condition called sarcoidosis. In sarcoidosis, small abnormal knots of immune cells called granulomas form in various parts of the body. The most common place is in the lungs. These knots of cells may cause health problems. Granulomas can also form in...
Anion Gap (Blood)
Anion Gap (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum anion gap What is this test? This test looks at electrically charged particles in your blood. This helps your health care provider diagnose acid-base problems. The test results are done from the results of an electrolyte panel, another blood test. Your blood contains sodium, chloride, and bicarbonate. All of these are charged particles. The value for the anion gap tells your health care provider something about which other charged particles must b...
Antidiuretic Hormone
Antidiuretic Hormone Does this test have other names? Vasopressin, arginine vasopressin, ADH What is this test? This test measures how much antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is in your blood. ADH is made by your hypothalamus. ADH keeps the amount of water in your body in balance. Certain conditions can affect the amount of ADH that your body makes. These include hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in your bodily fluids. They also include diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of this condition include urinating often and...
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody
Antimitochondrial Antibody and Antimitochondrial M2 Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, mitochondrial antibody, antimitochondrial M2 antibody What is this test? This test looks for substances called antimitochondrial antibody and antimitochondrial M2 antibody in your blood. These substances are usually made by your body if you have a condition called primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is the most common autoimmune disease that affects the liver. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system att...
Antimyocardial Antibody
Antimyocardial Antibody Does this test have other names? AMA, anti-cardiac muscle antibody What is this test? This test measures how many antimyocardial antibodies (AMAs) are in your blood. AMAs are a sign of heart damage. Higher levels are linked to several forms of heart disease. They can be found in the blood before you have any symptoms of heart disease. Why do I need this test? Some people develop AMAs after heart surgery or a heart attack. Having these antibodies can be a sign of pericarditis, or ...
Antinuclear Antibody
Antinuclear Antibody Does this test have other names? ANA, fluorescent antinuclear antibody test, FANA What is this test? This blood test is done to help your health care provider find out if you have an autoimmune disease. Your immune system is your body's defense system. It protects you against foreign invaders like viruses and bacteria. In some cases, your immune system can become confused. It can think that normal cells in your body are foreign invaders. When that happens, your body can make protein...
Antiphospholipid Antibody
Antiphospholipid Antibody Does this test have other names? APA, lupus anticoagulant, anticardiolipin antibodies What is this test? This blood test checks for antiphospholipid antibodies. These may be found in people with abnormal blood clots or autoimmune diseases. Your immune system usually creates antibodies in response to an infection or foreign invaders like bacteria. Antiphospholipid antibodies are usually made when your immune system mistakes part of your own body for a harmful substance. In this ...
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen)
Antithrombin (Activity and Antigen) Does this test have other names? Functional antithrombin III, functional AT, AT activity What are these tests? The antithrombin activity and antigen tests are used to help find out what may be causing abnormal blood clots in your body. A blood clot (thrombus) can be good or bad, depending on the case. Your body needs to be able to form blood clots in order to stop too much bleeding in case of injury. But it's important to prevent abnormal clots that cut off blood flow...
Antitissue Transglutaminase Antibody
Anti-tissue Transglutaminase Antibody Does this test have other names? IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase, IgA Anti-tTG, celiac disease testing What is this test? This test is used to see if you have celiac disease. It is also used to see how well people with the condition are doing. It is one of several blood tests that may be used to help diagnose celiac disease. Tissue transglutaminase is an enzyme that fixes damage in your body. People with celiac disease often make antibodies that attack this enzyme....
Apolipoprotein A
Apolipoprotein A Does this test have other names? Apo A-1, apolipoprotein a-1 What is this test? This test measures the amount of apolipoprotein A in your blood. It helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein A is a protein carried in HDL ("good") cholesterol. It helps start the process for HDL to remove bad types of cholesterol from your body. In this way, apolipoprotein A can help to lower your risk for cardiovascular disease. Although apolipoprotein ...
Apolipoprotein B100
Apolipoprotein B-100 Does this test have other names? ApoB100, Apolipoprotein B, ApoB, Apolipoprotein (B) What is this test? This test measures the amount of a certain type of cholesterol called apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB) in your blood. ApoB is the main protein found in the low-density lipoproteins (LDL). LDL cholesterol is also called "bad" cholesterol because high levels of it can damage your heart and arteries. The ApoB test helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for cardiovascular dise...
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Does this test have other names? ABG, systemic arterial blood gas analysis, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, or oxygen saturation test. What is this test? An arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) measures the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in your blood to see how well your lungs are working. It also measures the acid-base balance in the blood. Your kidneys and lungs keep this acid-base balance. You need this for the enzyme systems in your body to work at their best. When there is an imbalanc...
Aspartate Transaminase
Aspartate Transaminase Does this test have other names? AST, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase test, SGOT What is this test? This blood test is used to diagnose liver damage. Aspartate transaminase (AST) is an enzyme that is released when your liver or muscles are damaged. Although AST is found mainly in your liver and heart, AST can also be found in small amounts in other muscles. This test can also be used to monitor liver disease. Why do I need this test? Your healthcare provider might give you...
Bartonella Antibody
Bartonella Antibody Does this test have other names? Cat scratch disease blood test, indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFA) for IgM and IgG against B. henselae What is this test? This blood test screens for exposure to Bartonella henselae, the bacteria that cause cat scratch disease. These bacteria are spread by cats, especially kittens, which are more likely to be infected. The disease is usually fairly mild and clears up without treatment. But it can be more serious for people with a weakened immune...
Basic Metabolic Panel (Blood)
Basic Metabolic Panel (Blood) Does this test have other names? BMP, chemistry panel, chem 7, electrolyte panel What is this test? This blood test gives information about your body's metabolism, or how your body uses food for energy. It gives a snapshot of the health of your kidneys, your blood sugar levels, and the levels of key electrolytes, such as potassium and sodium. A basic metabolic panel test measures the levels of eight important things in your blood: Calcium. Calcium plays a role in keeping yo...
Bence-Jones Protein (Urine)
Bence-Jones Protein (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine protein electrophoresis, UPEP, urine immunofixation electrophoresis, immunoassay for free light chains What is this test? The Bence-Jones protein urine test is used mainly to diagnose and monitor multiple myeloma, a type of cancer. An abnormal Bence-Jones test result is also linked with malignant lymphomas. These are cancers of the lymphatic system. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer of the plasma cells. These are immune system cells tha...
Benzodiazepines (Blood)
Benzodiazepines (Blood) Does this test have other names? Benzodiazepine drug screen What is this test? This is a blood test to screen for a class of drugs called benzodiazepines (ben-ZOH-die-AZ-uh-peens). Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants. They are used to sedate patients, help them sleep, prevent seizures, ease anxiety, and relax muscle spasms. These drugs are often informally called tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and muscle relaxants. Variations in the molecules of different benzo...
Benzodiazepines (Urine)
Benzodiazepines (Urine) Does this test have other names? Toxic urine screen, urine toxicology screen What is this test? This is a urine test to screen for a class of medicines called benzodiazepines. Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants. They are used to sedate patients, help them sleep, prevent seizures, ease anxiety, and relax muscle spasms. These medicines are often informally called tranquilizers, sleeping pills, and muscle relaxants. Variations in the molecules of different benzod...
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Genital, Urine)
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Genital, Urine) Does this test have other names? Group B strep screen What is this test? This test looks for group B streptococcus (GBS) bacteria in a culture sample either from your urine or from secretions in your vagina and rectum. GBS bacteria can cause severe illness in pregnant women and newborns. The bacteria are called hemolytic because they can break down red blood cells. A GBS infection makes it more likely that you will deliver preterm. Your amniotic flui...
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Throat)
Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Culture (Throat) Does this test have other names? Strep test, throat culture, Streptococcal screen What is this test? This test looks for the bacteria that cause strep throat. This condition causes a severe sore throat and makes it painful to swallow. It's important to detect and treat strep throat as soon as possible because it can progress to more serious illnesses, such as rheumatic fever. The bacteria most likely to cause strep throat and bacterial sore throats in genera...
Bicarbonate
Bicarbonate Does this test have other names? Carbon dioxide test, CO2 test What is this test? This test measures the amount of bicarbonate, a form of carbon dioxide, in your blood. Bicarbonate, also known as HCO3, is a byproduct of your body's metabolism. Your blood brings bicarbonate to your lungs, and then it is exhaled as carbon dioxide. Your kidneys also help regulate bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is excreted and reabsorbed by your kidneys. This regulates your body's pH, or acid balance. Bicarbonate also...
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid)
Bilirubin (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Amniocentesis, Amniotic fluid bilirubin optical density, OD What is this test? This test is done to see how well your baby is developing inside you. The liquid that surrounds the baby inside your womb is called amniotic fluid. Health care providers check the fluid for a pigment called bilirubin to see whether your baby has a blood type that is incompatible with yours. When this happens, it may cause the baby to develop severe anemia or other pr...
Blood Smear
Blood Smear Does this test have other names? Peripheral blood smear, blood smear analysis, peripheral blood film, smear What is this test? This is a blood test to look at the number and shape of your red and white blood cells and platelets to see whether they are normal. A blood smear can also detect parasites in your blood. Although it's more common to have your blood analyzed by computer, blood smears are still routinely done to rule out or identify certain diseases. Unlike the analysis done by machin...
Blood Type and Crossmatch
Blood Type and Crossmatch Does this test have other names? Blood typing, crossmatching What is this test? This is a set of tests that looks for harmful interactions between your blood and donor blood. The tests are done before a blood transfusion. Blood typing is the first step. This test finds out whether you have blood type A, AB, B, or O. Your blood is also tested to find out whether your Rh type is negative or positive. It's important for your healthcare provider to know your blood type in order to ...
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Blood Urea Nitrogen Does this test have other names? Urea nitrogen, BUN, serum BUN What is this test? A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test measures the amount of urea nitrogen found in your blood. BUN levels help your healthcare provider see how well your kidneys are working. The test may be used along with other measurements to help diagnose a kidney disorder or find out how well your treatment for kidney disease is working. Why do I need this test? If your healthcare provider suspects that you have kidney...
BNP (Blood)
BNP (Blood) Does this test have other names? B-type natriuretic peptide What is this test? This test looks for the hormone BNP in your blood. BNP stands for brain natriuretic peptide. It is made inside the pumping chambers of your heart when pressure builds up from heart failure. The test is an important tool for healthcare providers to diagnose heart failure quickly. Heart failure occurs when your heart is not pumping blood well. This causes cells inside your heart to release BNP. This opens up blood v...
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy
Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy Does this test have other names? Bone marrow exam What is this test? This is a two-part test that looks at the blood cells in a sample of bone marrow, the spongy tissue within certain bones. This test may help your healthcare provider diagnose or monitor a blood disease or health condition affecting your marrow. Your bone marrow has a liquid part and a solid part. Aspiration uses a needle to remove a sample of the liquid part of bone marrow. Biopsy uses a larger needle ...
Bordetella Pertussis Antibody (Blood)
Bordetella Pertussis Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Whooping cough antibody test What is this test? This test checks for Bordetella pertussis antibodies in your blood. B. pertussis are the bacteria that cause pertussis, or whooping cough. Whooping cough is a highly contagious childhood infection that can also affect adults. It can be quite serious and sometimes deadly, especially in children younger than 12 months. Its hallmark symptom is a cough that may last 1 to 6 weeks, or possibl...
Borrelia Antibody (Blood)
Borrelia Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies test, IgM/IgG test, Lyme disease test What is this test? This test measures the level of Borrelia antibodies in your blood. Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria cause Lyme disease. The bacteria are spread to humans through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated, Lyme disease can cause meningitis, or an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. It can also cause liver and heart problems; facial pa...
Borrelia Antibody (CSF)
Borrelia Antibody (CSF) Does this test have other names? Lyme disease test (CSF) What is this test? This test looks for Borrelia antibodies in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria cause Lyme disease. The bacteria are spread to humans through the bite of an infected tick. If not treated, Lyme disease can cause meningitis, or an infection of the tissues covering the brain and spinal cord. It can also cause liver and heart problems; facial palsy, or the inability to control facial ...
Brucella Antibody
Brucella Antibody Does this test have other names? Brucella agglutination titer, Brucella antibody titer, Brucella-specific agglutination, Brucella microagglutination test, BMAT, standard tube agglutination test What is this test? This is a blood test for brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies to fight the brucella bacteria. This test looks f...
Brucella Antibody (CSF)
Brucella Antibody (CSF) Does this test have other names? CSF agglutination test What is this test? This test looks at fluid from your spinal cord to find out if you have an illness called brucellosis. Brucellosis is an infectious disease usually caused by handling animals or milk products infected with the brucella bacteria. If you have brucellosis, your body will make certain antibodies when it tries to fight these germs. Brucella antibodies can usually be found in your blood, liver, spleen, lymph node...
CA 125
CA 125 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 125, glycoprotein antigen, ovarian cancer antigen What is this test? This test looks for the protein CA 125 in your blood. CA 125 is higher in many women with ovarian cancer. Health care providers may use this test to look for ovarian cancer in women who may be at high risk because of family history or symptoms. They may also use this test to see if treatment is working. Or they may use it to find out if cancer is coming back after treatment. CA 125...
CA 19-9
CA 19-9 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 19-9, CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay (RIA) test What is this test? This test looks for the antigen called CA 19-9 in your blood. Antigens are substances that stimulate your body's immune system. Certain types of cancer cells send the CA 19-9 antigen into the blood, where it can be measured with this test. A high amount of CA 19-9 is most commonly caused by pancreatic cancer. But it can also be caused by the other cancers and by infections in your liver, ...
CA 27-29
CA 27-29 Does this test have other names? Cancer antigen 27-29 What is this test? CA 27-29 is a blood test used to watch certain types of cancer. CA 27-29 is the name of an antigen. An antigen is a substance that stimulates your body's defense system. Certain types of cancer cells send CA 27-29 antigen into the blood. This test measures how much CA 27-29 is in your blood. Breast cancer is the cancer most likely to release CA 27-29. The FDA has approved the CA 27-29 blood test as a way for health care pr...
Calcium (Blood)
Calcium (Blood) Does this test have other names? Total calcium, ionized calcium What is this test? A calcium blood test measures how much calcium is in your blood. Your health care provider can use this test to help diagnose and watch many conditions. There are two types of calcium blood tests. One is total calcium and the other is ionized calcium. Ionized calcium measures the "free" calcium in your blood. This is the calcium not bound to other parts of the blood. Why do I need this test? Your health ca...
Calcium (Urine)
Calcium (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urinalysis (calcium) What is this test? This test measures the level of calcium in your urine. Your body uses calcium in many ways, from developing teeth to building bones. Your parathyroid gland regulates the calcium in your body. It releases extra calcium from the bones when your body needs it. If your body has too much calcium, it is carried out of your body with your urine. If the calcium in your urine builds up and crystallizes, you may develop kidne...
Campylobacter Culture (Stool)
Campylobacter Culture (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool sample examination, fecal (poop) smear What is this test? This test looks for harmful bacteria in a culture sample from your stool. One kind of harmful bacteria is Campylobacter. It is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the U.S. Campylobacter shows up in the stomach of several animals, including pigs and cattle. But it's most likely to be passed to people through raw and undercooked chicken and other poultry. In some cases, peop...
Cannabinoid Screen and Confirmation (Urine)
Cannabinoid Screen and Confirmation (Urine) Does this test have other names? Marijuana screen, drug abuse screening test, DAST, marijuana drug test (urine), drug abuse test What is this test? This is a two-part urine test to look for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. THC is the active ingredient in marijuana. The test can find out if THC or related chemicals from marijuana called metabolites are in your urine. The test is considered quite accurate. You may have to do the urine test in a health care ...
Carbon Dioxide (Blood)
Carbon Dioxide (Blood) Does this test have other names? Carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test What is this test? This test measures how much carbon dioxide is in your blood. When you digest food, your body makes carbon dioxide as a waste product in the form of gas. Your blood carries this gas to your lungs. You exhale it and breathe in oxygen thousands of times a day. Carbon dioxide in your blood usually causes no problems. But if you ha...
Carbon Monoxide (Blood)
Carbon Monoxide (Blood) Does this test have other names? CO blood test, CO blood gas, arterial blood gas What is this test? This test measures the level of carbon monoxide (CO) in your blood. Carbon monoxide is a colorless, tasteless, and odorless gas made by combustion. Breathing in CO can be fatal because it doesn't allow oxygen to get to your heart and other organs. This test looks for carboxyhemoglobin. This substance is made in your blood when hemoglobin combines with carbon monoxide instead of oxy...
Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Carcinoembryonic Antigen Does this test have other names? CEA What is this test? This test measures a protein called carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in your blood. This protein is found on some types of cancer cells. CEA is called a tumor marker because it gives information about cancer in your body. This test may help your health care provider find out if your cancer treatment is working. It may also help your provider know if the cancer is coming back after treatment. The test can be used with cancers ...
Cardiac Biomarkers (Blood)
Cardiac Biomarkers (Blood) Does this test have other names? CK, CK-MB, TROPI, myoglobin, cardiac enzymes What is this test? This test measures the levels of cardiac biomarkers in your blood. These markers include enzymes, hormones, and proteins. Cardiac biomarkers show up in your blood after your heart has been under severe stress because it isn't getting enough oxygen. This might be because you've had a heart attack. But these levels can be high for other reasons. The levels of biomarkers are often use...
Cardiolipin Antibody
Cardiolipin Antibody Does this test have other names? Cardiolipin antibodies (IgG, IgM, IgA), anticardiolipin What is this test? A cardiolipin antibodies test looks for a certain kind of antibody in your blood. The antibodies are IgG (immunoglobulin G), IgA (immunoglobulin A), and IgM (immunoglobulin M). They are antibodies that form in response to cardiolipins. Cardiolipin is a phospholipid, or a kind of fat in the blood. The levels of these antibodies are often high in people with abnormal blood clott...
Catecholamines (Blood)
Catecholamines (Blood) Does this test have other names? Dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine tests, What is this test? This test measures the levels of catecholamines in your blood. The catecholamine hormones are epinephrine, norepinephrine; and dopamine. Epinephrine is also called adrenalin. Catecholamines are made in the adrenal glands. They are released when you have physical or emotional stress. These hormones have many functions in the body. These include sending nerve impulses in the brain, n...
Catecholamines (Urine)
Catecholamines (Urine) Does this test have other names? urine metanephrines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine What is this test? This test measures the levels of catecholamines in your urine. Catecholamines are hormones made by your adrenal glands. They are released when you have physical or emotional stress. These hormones include epinephrine and dopamine. They do many things in your body. They send nerve impulses in your brain, narrow blood vessels, and raise your heart rate. People who have a ra...
CD4-CD8 Ratio
CD4-CD8 Ratio Does this test have other names? CD4/CD8 ratio T-cell test What is this test? This test looks at the ratio of two important types of white blood cells in your blood. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell in your immune system. This test looks at two of them, CD4 and CD8. CD4 cells lead the fight against infections. CD8 cells can kill cancer cells and other invaders. If you have HIV, your CD4 cell count may be low. Without HIV treatment, your number of CD4 cells will likely keep fallin...
Ceruloplasmin (Blood)
Ceruloplasmin (Blood) Does this test have other names? CP What is this test? This test is used to measure how much of a copper-containing protein is in your blood. This test is used to diagnose problems related to copper. These include Wilson disease. Wilson disease is a rare inherited disease that can't be cured. Ceruloplasmin is a protein made in your liver. Ceruloplasmin stores and carries the mineral copper around your body. Ceruloplasmin carries 65% to 90% of the copper found in blood. Copper is vi...
Chlamydia Pneumoniae (Swab)
Chlamydia Pneumoniae (Swab) Does this test have other names? Chlamydophila pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) (swab), throat culture, pneumonia testing What is this test? If your healthcare provider suspects you have C. pneumoniae, he or she may do a swab test of your nose or throat to test for it. C. pneumoniae is just one of many strains of bacterial pneumonia that a person can become infected with. Why do I need this test? When you have a bacterial pneumonia such as C. pneumoniae, it can be potentially life-...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab)
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Swab) Does this test have other names? C. trachomatis test, CZ test, chlamydia test What is this test? This test looks for Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in a sample of cells collected by your healthcare provider. C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. The CDC recommends that sexually active women 25 and younger be screened once a year for chlamydia. That's because as many as half of women who get chlamy...
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Urine)
Chlamydia Trachomatis (Urine) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test looks for Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in a sample of cells collected by your healthcare provider. C. trachomatis bacteria cause chlamydia. Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the U.S. The CDC recommends that sexually active women 25 and younger be screened once a year for chlamydia. That's because as many as half of women who get chlamydia don't have any symptoms. Men should ...
Chloride
Chloride Does this test have other names? Cl, serum chloride test What is this test? This test will find out how much chloride is in your blood and help your healthcare provider figure out if you may have certain kidney problems. Chloride is one of the ingredients in table salt. But it's also an important mineral in your body. It helps move fluids in and out of your blood cells. When you have an imbalance of chloride, you may start to feel ill. You can lose chloride if you've been vomiting or have diarr...
Chloride (Urine)
Chloride (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine chloride What is this test? This test measures the amount of chloride in your urine. Your body tries to keep its acid-base (pH) level in balance. But certain conditions can cause an imbalance. If your body tissues become too alkaline, you may get metabolic alkalosis. Alkaline is the opposite of acidic. You can get metabolic alkalosis from taking medicines that make you urinate more (diuretics). It can also happen after you have been vomiting. Or it...
Cholesterol
Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Total blood cholesterol, serum cholesterol What is this test? This test measures the amount of cholesterol in your blood. This helps your healthcare provider figure out your risk for heart disease. Cholesterol is a substance found in all of your body's cells, where it plays an important role. But your body can have too much cholesterol if you eat the wrong types of foods. These include fried foods and foods with saturated or trans fats. Some health conditions...
Cholinesterase (Blood)
Cholinesterase (Blood) Does this test have other names? RBC cholinesterase, true cholinesterase, red cell cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase What is this test? This test looks for signs of chemical poisoning in your blood. Cholinesterase is an enzyme that helps your nervous system work the way it should. Certain toxic chemicals in the environment can interfere with this enzyme and affect your nervous system. These chemicals include organophosphates and carbamates. They are most often found in insectic...
Chromosome Analysis
Chromosome Analysis Does this test have other names? Genetic testing, karyotyping What is this test? This test looks for changes, or abnormalities, in the chromosomes that make up your body's DNA, or genetic road map. Your chromosomes are found in the inner part of your cells, called your cell nucleus. They contain all the genes that have been passed down to you from your mother and father. Each person normally has 23 pairs of chromosomes in each cell (23 pairs = 46 chromosomes). One of these pairs carr...
Clinical Genetic Testing
Clinical Genetic Testing Does this test have other names? Genetic screening, DNA test or testing, chromosomal test, gene testing, DNA-based test What is this test? Genetic testing is usually done to screen newborns, children, or adults for inherited diseases or genes that put them at increased risk for a certain disease. Some parents choose to be screened before or during pregnancy to see whether they are carriers of a certain disease, such as hemophilia. Your genes are like a road map: They hold the bl...
Clonazepam Drug Level (Blood)
Clonazepam Level (Blood) Does this test have other names? Klonopin blood level What is this test? This test measures the amount of clonazepam in your blood. Clonazepam is a medicine used to treat seizures. It's often prescribed to adults and children who suffer from partial seizures and spasms. It may also be used to treat panic attacks, insomnia and generalized anxiety. It is a type of medicine called a benzodiazepine. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if it's possible you have taken an o...
Clostridium Difficile Toxin (Stool)
Clostridium Difficile Toxin (Stool) Does this test have other names? C. diff, C. difficile What is this test? This is a test to look at your stool for toxins produced by Clostridium difficile bacteria. Your gastrointestinal (GI) tract is home to many healthy bacteria, and sometimes C. difficile is one of them. But in some cases, taking broad-spectrum antibiotics can upset the balance of healthy bacteria in your gut and cause new or antibiotic-resistant strains of C. difficile to grow out of control. The...
Cocaine Screen
Cocaine Screen Does this test have other names? Cocaine drug test, toxicology screen, tox screen, substance abuse test, drug-of-abuse test What is this test? A cocaine screen is a test done to find out whether you have used cocaine recently. The test can be done on your urine, saliva, blood, hair, or sweat. It looks for the presence of cocaine or one of its metabolites, or chemicals your body makes to process cocaine. The two most important metabolites of cocaine are benzoylecgonine (ben-zoyl-ECK-oh-nee...
Complement C3 (Blood)
Complement C3 (Blood) Does this test have other names? Complement component 3, C3 What is this test? This test measures the amount of C3 proteins in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, which plays an important role in your immune system. Its job is to help kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. It also responds to such invaders with inflammation that protects your body from disease. Complement component C3 is the most important and abundant protein in the complement system...
Complement C4 (Blood)
Complement C4 (Blood) Does this test have other names? Complement component 4, C4 What is this test? This test measures the amount of C4 proteins in your blood. These proteins are part of your complement system, which plays an important role in your immune system. Its job is to help kill disease-causing bacteria and viruses. It also responds to such invaders with inflammation that protects your body from disease. By measuring complement C4 levels, especially in how they compare with other parts of the c...
Complete Blood Count
Complete Blood Count Does this test have other names? CBC What is this test? The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test used to screen your overall health and to look for many different illnesses, including anemia, infections, and leukemia. The test extracts a large amount of information from the blood sample you've given, including: The number and types of white blood cells (WBCs). There are 5 types of WBCs. All play a role in fighting infection. High numbers of WBCs, or of a specific type of WBC, ...
Complete Blood Count with Differential
Complete Blood Count with Differential Does this test have other names? CBC w/ diff What is this test? This panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is. The test gets a lot of information from your blood sample: The number and types of white blood cells (WBCs). Your body has 5 types of white blood cells. All play a role in fighting infections. High numbers of WBCs, or of a specific type of WBC, may mean...
Complete Urinalysis
Complete Urinalysis Does this test have other names? Urine test, urine examination, UA What is this test? This test looks at a sample of your urine. Your healthcare provider can use the results from this test to help diagnose, find, or track many conditions. These include: Diabetes Metabolic diseases such as phenylketonuria Kidney problems or infections Liver problems Urinary tract infections Lupus Congestive heart failure Cancer A lab can look at a urine sample in different ways: Visual inspection. If ...
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel
Comprehensive Metabolic Panel Does this test have other names? Metabolic panel, CMP, chem 14, chemistry panel, chemistry screen, (formerly SMAC, sequential multiple analyzer chemistry) What is this test? This test is a screening panel of 14 tests that look at your metabolism. Your body gets energy from food through a process called metabolism. The tests in this panel help see how well your liver and kidneys are working. These are two major organs involved in metabolism. These tests also measure your ele...
Cortisol (Blood)
Cortisol (Blood) Does this test have other names? Blood cortisol; plasma cortisol; cortisol, plasma What is this test? A serum cortisol test may help in the diagnosis of two fairly uncommon medical conditions: Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease. The test also screens for other diseases that affect your pituitary and adrenal glands. It does so by measuring your blood level of a stress hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone made by your adrenal glands. It helps your body respond to s...
Cortisol (Urine)
Cortisol (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine free cortisol test What is this test? A urine cortisol test may help in the diagnosis of two fairly uncommon medical conditions: Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease. The test also screens for other diseases that affect your pituitary and adrenal glands. It does so by measuring your urine level of a stress hormone called cortisol. Cortisol is a steroid hormone made by your adrenal glands. It helps your body respond to stress, regulate blood sug...
C-Peptide (Urine)
C-Peptide (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine C-peptide What is this test? This test measures how much insulin your body makes. If you have low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) or other problems related to diabetes, your health care provider may order a C-peptide test. This test is often done using a blood sample, but a urine sample can also be used. Why do I need this test? If you have diabetes, it can be hard for a health care provider to tell how much insulin your pancreas makes by just looking ...
C-Reactive Protein (Blood)
C-Reactive Protein (Blood) Does this test have other names? CRP What is this test? The C-reactive protein (CRP) test is used to find swelling and infection in your body. It does this by measuring the amount of CRP in your blood. CRP is a protein made by the liver and sent into the bloodstream. Blood levels may be higher when you have swelling (inflammation) or an infection. Because CRP levels often go up before you have symptoms of pain or fever and drop down as you recover, the CRP test is especially u...
Creatine Kinase (Blood)
Creatine Kinase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Creatine phosphokinase, CK, CPK What is this test? This test measures the amount of an enzyme called creatine kinase (CK) in your blood. CK is a type of protein. The muscle cells in your body need CK to function. Levels of CK can rise after a heart attack, skeletal muscle injury, strenuous exercise, or drinking too much alcohol, and from taking certain medicines or supplements. If this test shows that your CK levels are high, you may have muscle o...
Creatine Kinase MB (Blood)
Creatine Kinase MB (Blood) Does this test have other names? CK-MB What is this test? This test measures the amount of an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK) in your blood. It is called CK-MB. Your body makes 3 forms of CK, including CK-MB. CK is found in the heart, muscles, and other organs. These include the small intestine, brain, and uterus. If you have a heart attack, injured heart muscle cells release CK-MB into your blood. Because many tissues contain CK, high levels of CK can be a sign of a variety...
Creatine Kinase MB/Creatine Kinase Ratio
Creatine Kinase MB/Creatine Kinase Ratio Does this test have other names? Ratio of CK-MB to total CK, cardiac index What is this test? This test measures the amount of creatine kinase (CK), an enzyme, in your blood. It also measures a certain isoenzyme of CK called CK-MB. This is found mostly in the heart. Your body makes 3 forms of CK, including CK-MB. CK is found in the heart, muscles, and other organs including the small intestine, brain, and uterus. If you have a heart attack, injured heart muscle c...
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood)
Creatine Kinase with Isoenzymes (Blood) Does this test have other names? Creatine kinase, creatine phosphokinase with isoenzymes, CK, CPK, CK-MM, CK-MB, CK-BB What is this test? This test is used to find damage to muscles in your body, including your heart muscle. Creatine kinase (CK) is an enzyme found in your muscles. Enzymes are proteins that help your body's cells do their jobs. The level of the CK enzymes rises when you have damage to muscle cells in your body. The three types of CK are called isoe...
Creatinine (Blood)
Creatinine (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum creatinine, blood creatinine What is this test? This is a blood test that measures how well your kidneys work. Clearing and filtering waste products out of your blood are important kidney functions. Creatinine is a normal waste product that builds up in your blood from using your muscles. Your body produces creatinine at a constant rate all the time, and healthy kidneys remove almost all of this creatinine. By comparing the amount of creatinine i...
Creatinine (Urine)
Creatinine (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine creatinine What is this test? This test measures the level of a substance called creatinine in your urine. Creatinine is a waste product that your body makes when you use your muscles. It's also made when your body digests meat. Healthy kidneys remove creatinine from your blood, and it leaves your body in your urine. This test can find out whether your kidneys are working normally or to see if treatment for kidney disease is working. Why do I nee...
Creatinine Clearance
Creatinine Clearance Does this test have other names? CRCL, CCT What is this test? This test measures how well your kidneys are working and how well blood is flowing to them. Creatinine is a waste product that comes from normal muscle use and from meat protein in your diet. Healthy kidneys remove creatinine from the blood. It then passes out of your body through urine. The creatinine clearance test usually compares the creatinine level in a 24-hour urine sample with the creatinine level in your blood. T...
Cryofibrinogen
Cryofibrinogen Does this test have other names? Cryofibrinogenemia, CF What is this test? This test looks for an abnormal protein called cryofibrinogen in your blood plasma. People who have this abnormal protein may get a disorder called cryofibrinogenemia. The disorder rarely causes symptoms. But if it is not treated, it can become life-threatening and lead to stroke, heart attack, gangrene, or other health emergencies. Why do I need this test? You may have this test to find out whether you have cryofi...
Cryoglobulin
Cryoglobulin Does this test have other names? Cryocrit, cryoprotein What is this test? This test is done to find out if you have abnormal proteins in your blood. Blood proteins include normal immunoglobulins, or antibodies, like IgG and IgM. But they can also include antibodies linked to autoimmune diseases. These abnormal blood proteins are dissolved in your blood at body temperature. But when you are in a cold environment, they thicken and clump together. This restricts the blood flow to your joints, ...
Cystatin C
Cystatin C Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test measures the amount of a protein called cystatin C in your blood. Your body makes cystatin C constantly, and the protein is found in different fluids, including blood, spinal fluid, and breast milk. When your kidneys are healthy, they filter cystatin C out of the blood so it can be excreted in your urine. This is a relatively sensitive blood test to look at your kidney health. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if ...
Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Carrier Testing
Cystic Fibrosis Genetic Carrier Testing Does this test have other names? Cystic fibrosis genetic testing What is this test? This test is done to see if you carry a defective gene that may cause cystic fibrosis (CF) in your child. A defect in a gene is called a mutation. Genes are made from DNA, and mutations can be found by doing special tests that look at your DNA. CF is a serious disease that causes thick mucus to form in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. CF may be treated, but the disease has no...
Cystic Fibrosis Sweat Test
Cystic Fibrosis Sweat Test Does this test have other names? Sweat chloride test What is this test? A sweat chloride test is the gold standard test for diagnosing cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is a disease that causes mucus to build up and clog organs, especially the lungs. This causes breathing problems. CF can be life-threatening if not treated. CF is an inherited disease that affects about 30,000 children and adults in the U.S. This simple test measures the amount of the chemical chloride, which is part of...
Cytomegalovirus (Amniotic Fluid)
Cytomegalovirus (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test checks a developing baby for cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus that belongs to the herpes family of viruses. The herpes family includes herpes simplex; varicella zoster, which causes chickenpox and shingles; and Epstein-Barr mononucleosis. Cytomegalovirus is common in adults and even children. The majority percent of all adults will have CMV by the time they're 40. It usually goes undetected because actual sy...
Cytomegalovirus (Blood)
Cytomegalovirus (Blood) Does this test have other names? CMV (serum), cytomegalovirus serologic test, cytomegalovirus antibody, IgG, IgM What is this test? This test looks for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus in the herpes family, in your blood. CMV is so widespread that most people in the U.S. have been infected by the time they reach age 40, although many don't realize it. You can pick up the virus by handling or exchanging bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, urine, breast milk, and seme...
Cytomegalovirus (Urine)
Cytomegalovirus (Urine) Does this test have other names? CMV test What is this test? This is a urine test for cytomegalovirus (CMV), a common virus that belongs to the herpes family. It is so widespread that most people in the U.S. have been infected by the time they reach age 40, although many don't realize it. You can pick up the virus by handling or exchanging bodily fluids, such as saliva, blood, urine, breast milk, and semen. The virus usually causes only a mild illness, but it can do serious harm ...
D-Dimer
D-Dimer Does this test have other names? Fragment D-dimer, fibrin degradation fragment What is this test? This is a blood test to look for a substance called D-dimer. This test is used to rule out a blood clot. D-dimer is a protein fragment from the break down of a blood clot. Blood clots generally begin to slowly break down after they are formed, and this process releases D-dimer into the blood. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your health care provider suspects you have a dangerous b...
Deamidated Gliadin Antibody
Deamidated Gliadin Antibody Does this test have other names? Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies, DGP, DGP-AGA What is this test? This test looks for the level of deamidated gliadin antibodies (DMG) in your blood. Gliadin is one of the main proteins in gluten. The test is used to help find out whether you have celiac disease, an autoimmune disease. If you have celiac disease, your immune system responds abnormally to gluten, which is mainly found in wheat, barley, and rye products. It's also found in ...
Dehydroepiandrosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate
Dehydroepiandrosterone and Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Does this test have other names? DHEA, DHEA-S What is this test? This test measures the level of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) in your blood. It may also be used to check how well your adrenal glands are working. DHEA is a hormone made by your adrenal glands and to a lesser degree by the ovaries and testes. DHEA is changed into DHEA-S in your adrenal glands and liver. In both men and women, the sex horm...
Digoxin Drug Level
Digoxin Drug Level Does this test have other names? Therapeutic digoxin monitoring, dig level What is this test? This test measures the amount of the heart drug digoxin in your blood. Digoxin is a drug that helps your heart pump better when you have an irregular or rapid heartbeat. This heartbeat is often caused by atrial fibrillation. Digoxin may also be given to you if you have congestive heart failure (CHF). When you take digoxin, it's important that the drug be at the right level for you to get the ...
Diphtheria Antitoxoid Antibody
Diphtheria Antitoxoid Antibody Does this test have other names? Anti-diphtheria test, DIPH2, DIPO, DIPE What is this test? This test measures the level of diphtheria antibodies in your blood. Diphtheria is a serious infectious disease caused by C. diphtheriae bacteria. Diphtheria affects the respiratory tract. It causes symptoms such as: Sore throat Weakness Nausea Trouble swallowing Trouble breathing Paralysis Heart failure Diphtheria can be fatal if not treated. The disease is very rare in the U.S. be...
Direct Antiglobulin
Direct Antiglobulin Does this test have other names? Direct Coombs test What is this test? The direct antiglobulin test is a blood test used to diagnose a type of anemia caused by your immune system. Your immune system is your body's defense system. It makes proteins called antibodies to attack foreign invaders. In some cases, your immune system can make antibodies against red blood cells. This causes red blood cells to break down, a condition called hemolytic anemia. Why do I need this test? This blood...
Direct Bilirubin
Direct Bilirubin Does this test have other names? Conjugated bilirubin What is this test? This test looks for bilirubin in your blood or urine. Bilirubin is a substance made when your body breaks down old red blood cells. This is a normal process. Bilirubin is also part of bile, which your liver makes to help digest the food you eat. A small amount of bilirubin in your blood is normal. Healthy adults make 250 to 350 milligrams (mg) of bilirubin each day. Bilirubin that is bound to a certain protein is c...
EBV Antibody
EBV Antibody Does this test have other names? Specific Epstein-Barr virus antibodies, EBV-specific antibodies What is this test? This is a blood test that checks for antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Most people are infected by this virus at some point. EBV often doesn't have any symptoms, but it can cause mononucleosis (mono) or other conditions in some people, especially teens and young adults. Why do I need this test? Your healthcare provider may order this test if you have symptoms that mi...
Electrolytes
Electrolytes Does this test have other names? Electrolyte panel, Lytes, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), carbon dioxide (CO2) What is this test? This test measures the main electrolytes in your body: sodium, chloride, potassium, and carbon dioxide. The cells in your body carefully balance fluids and electrolytes, which are electrically charged minerals. Electrolytes move fluid in and out of your cells. They carry nutrients into the cells and waste products back out. Electrolytes also help keep...
Endomysial Antibody
Endomysial Antibody Does this test have other names? EMA test What is this test? This test looks for certain antibodies in your blood that may mean you have celiac disease, an autoimmune disease. If you have celiac disease, your immune system responds abnormally to a protein called gluten. Gluten is found in wheat, barley, and rye products. Your body makes antibodies to the gluten called endomysial antibodies (EMA). These autoantibodies cause intestinal swelling and, if undetected, can damage the intest...
Entamoeba histolytica Antibody
Entamoeba histolytica Antibody Does this test have other names? Amebiasis antibody test What is this test? This blood test tells your healthcare provider whether you have antibodies in your blood to the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes the disease amebiasis. If you have been infected with E. histolytica, your immune system may make these antibodies. Your immune system makes proteins called antibodies to attack foreign invaders like this parasite. Why do I need this test? You may need...
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Does this test have other names? ESR, sed rate What is this test? Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a blood test. It measures how quickly erythrocytes, or red blood cells, separate from a blood sample that has been treated so the blood will not clot. During this test, a small amount of your blood will be put in an upright tube. A lab specialist will measure the rate that your red blood cells settle toward the bottom of the tube after 1 hour. If you have a condition t...
Erythropoietin (Blood)
Erythropoietin (Blood) Does this test have other names? EPO What is this test? This is a test to measure how much erythropoietin (EPO) you have in your blood. EPO is a hormone that your kidney makes to trigger your bone marrow to make red blood cells. A normal EPO level means that your body can make healthy red blood cells. Healthy oxygen levels are linked to having enough red blood cells. For this reason, EPO levels usually rise when your body isn't getting enough oxygen. Why do I need this test? You m...
Estradiol (Blood)
Estradiol (Blood) Does this test have other names? E2 What is this test? This test measures the amount of estradiol (E2), the form of estrogen made mainly by the ovaries. E2 plays a key role in the female reproduction system. It's necessary for the development of the uterus, fallopian tubes, vagina, and breasts. Women have higher amounts of E2 during their reproductive years and almost none after menopause. Other estrogens include estrone and estriol. Estrone is the main estrogen made during menopause. ...
Ethanol (Blood)
Ethanol (Blood) Does this test have other names? Blood alcohol test What is this test? This test measures the amount of alcohol, or ethanol, in your blood. When you drink alcohol, more than 90% of it is processed by your liver. The rest leaves your body in your urine, sweat, and breath. Ethanol moves quickly from your digestive tract – mostly your stomach – and is absorbed into your bloodstream. Your blood alcohol level continues to rise for 30 to 90 minutes after you have your last alcoholic beverage. ...
Factor I
Factor I Does this test have other names? Factor I (fibrinogen), serum fibrinogen, functional fibrinogen What is this test? This test measures the level of a protein called fibrinogen in your blood. It helps find out whether you have a bleeding or blood clotting disorder. Fibrinogen is an important protein made by your liver. If you have bleeding anywhere in your body, fibrinogen is released from your liver and travels to the site of bleeding to help form a blood clot. Fibrinogen is also called coagulat...
Factor II
Factor II Does this test have other names? Factor II assay What is this test? This test measures how much of a protein called factor II is in your blood. It can help find out whether you have a bleeding or blood clotting disorder. The test can also screen for liver problems. Factor II, also called prothrombin, is made in your liver. Prothrombin must be present in your blood for a clot to form. Prothrombin and other similar proteins are called coagulation factors. Prothrombin is also called factor II bec...
Factor IX (Antihemophilic Factor B)
Factor IX (Antihemophilic Factor B) Does this test have other names? Hemophilia B, Christmas disease, factor IX hemophilia, FIX, factor IX deficiency test What is this test? The factor IX test is part of a larger screening test to find out which type of bleeding disorder you have. Factor IX is a protein that helps your blood clot. If you are lacking this protein, you may have a bleeding disorder called hemophilia B. Hemophilia B is found mostly in males. When people with hemophilia gets cut or injured, ...
Factor V
Factor V Does this test have other names? Factor V assay, clotting factor tests What is this test? A factor V test is a blood test that checks for a deficiency in a protein known as factor V. Factor V is a protein that helps your blood to clot. Having too little factor V causes a rare bleeding disorder. Your body has a number of protein "clotting factors." They are identified by Roman numerals. Factor V deficiency is an inherited disorder. It is called an autosomal recessive gene disorder. This means bo...
Factor VIII (Antihemophilic Factor A)
Factor VIII (Antihemophilia Factor A) Does this test have other names? Antihemophilia factor A test, AHF, factor VIII:C, coagulation factor test What is this test? This test measures the activity of factor VIII, a blood-clotting protein. The test can find out whether you have hemophilia A or another clotting disorder. Hemophilia A is the most common severe bleeding disorder. Von Willebrand disease is the most common of all bleeding disorders. In hemophilia A, blood does not clot as it should. This puts ...
Factor X
Factor X Does this test have other names? Factor assays, clotting factor tests What is this test? A factor X test is a blood test that checks for a deficiency in a protein in the blood called factor X. This protein helps with clotting. Your body has a number of protein clotting factors. They are identified by Roman numerals. A deficiency of factor X in the blood is a rare bleeding disorder. It affects about 1 person in 1 million. When it occurs, it can lead to abnormal or excessive bleeding. Why do I ne...
Factor XI
Factor XI Does this test have other names? FXI, factor XI deficiency test, test for hemophilia C What is this test? This test measures the amount of factor XI in your blood. Factor XI is a protein that plays an important role in blood clotting. If you don't have enough factor XI, you may have a condition called factor XI deficiency. This is a rare bleeding disorder. It is also known as hemophilia C. Hemophilia C is a bleeding disorder that can range from mild to moderate. If you have hemophilia C, your ...
Factor XII
Factor XII Does this test have other names? Coagulation factor XII, F12, FA12-human, HAE3, HAEX, HAF, Hageman factor What is this test? This test measures the amount of a protein called coagulation factor XII in your blood. A deficiency in factor XII is a rare bleeding disorder, but it causes abnormal clotting rather than bleeding. Factor XII is part of a group of proteins that act in a specific order to create a blood clot after an injury. Factor XII is often called Hageman factor. Factor XII floats fr...
Fecal Fat
Fecal Fat Does this test have other names? Fat in stool, fecal fat stain, quantitative stool fat What is this test? This test measures the amount of fat in your stool. Having too much fat in your stool is called steatorrhea. If you have too much fat in your stool, it may be a sign that food is moving through your digestive system without being broken down and absorbed properly. This is called malabsorption. Having a fecal fat test is the best way to find out if you have malabsorption. You can develop ma...
Fecal Occult Blood Test
Fecal Occult Blood Test Does this test have other names? FOBT, stool occult blood What is this test? A fecal occult blood test checks a stool sample for blood that can't be seen with the naked eye. Blood in the stool is a sign of bleeding in the digestive tract. This could indicate cancer, polyps, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, or inflammatory bowel disease, also called colitis. Why do I need this test? The American Cancer Society recommends that all men and women at average risk for colon cancer start sc...
Ferritin (Blood)
Ferritin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum ferritin level What is this test? This test measures how much iron is in your blood. Ferritin is a protein that stores iron. Red blood cells need iron to form normally and carry oxygen around your body. Other parts of your body, such as your liver, bone marrow, and muscles, also need iron. Low levels of ferritin lead to iron-deficiency anemia. This means you have too few red blood cells. Iron deficiency can come from a poor diet or blood loss. Or y...
Fetal Fibronectin
Fetal Fibronectin Does this test have other names? fFN What is this test? This test measures the amount of fetal fibronectin (FFN). FFN is a protein made during pregnancy. It's found between the lining of your uterus and the amniotic sac that's protecting your baby. Fetal fibronectin works as a glue to hold the amniotic sac to the uterine lining. This test helps find out whether you're at risk for premature delivery. The protein is found in cervical and vaginal fluid during the first half of your pregna...
Fluphenazine Drug Level (Blood)
Fluphenazine Drug Level (Blood) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This blood test measures the amount of the medicine fluphenazine in your blood. Fluphenazine is an antipsychotic medicine used to treat schizophrenia and Tourette syndrome. Fluphenazine helps you think more clearly. It also improves social exchanges, paranoia, and disposition. It can also help reduce involuntary movement related to Huntington chorea. The medicine can take up to 6 weeks to work as it should. Fluphenaz...
Folate
Folate Does this test have other names? Vitamin B-9, folic acid test What is this test? This is a blood test to measure the concentration of folate in the liquid part of your blood, called serum, or in your red blood cells. The concentration in the red blood cells will be higher than in the serum. Folate is a B vitamin naturally found in: Leafy green vegetables, such as spinach, kale, collards, and romaine lettuce Citrus fruits and juices Dried beans, lentils, and peas Yeast Liver Asparagus Broccoli Whe...
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Does this test have other names? FSH What is this test? This test measures the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH is an important hormone made in your pituitary gland. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through your blood. Your pituitary gland is located on the underside of your brain. FSH is made in the front part of your pituitary gland. If you are a man, FSH travels to your testicles. There, it tells the cells in your testicles to make sperm. If yo...
Fragile X Syndrome (Amniotic Fluid)
Fragile X Syndrome (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? FMR1 test, molecular Fragile X diagnosis, Fragile X DNA test What is this test? This test checks a sample of your amniotic fluid to find out whether your fetus may have fragile X syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. Fragile X syndrome often causes intellectual disability, behavior and learning challenges, and autistic disorders. This prenatal test isn't a common one. But if you or your partner has this syndrome or is a known carrier of t...
Free and Bound T4
Free and Bound T4 Does this test have other names? Total T4 concentration, thyroxine screen, free T4 concentration What is this test? This test measures the level of the hormone thyroxine (T4) in your blood. The thyroid gland makes T4 and also T3 (triiodothyronine) in response to thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is made by the pituitary gland in your brain. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat, above your collarbones. T4 is found in the body in two forms: free T4 an...
Free and Bound Triiodothyronine (Blood)
Free and Bound Triiodothyronine (Blood) Does this test have other names? Triiodothyronine test, T3 test, thyroid function test What is this test? This blood test measures the level of the hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in your blood. The thyroid gland makes the hormones T4 (thyroxine) and T3 in response to thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH is made by the pituitary gland. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat, above your collarbone. T3 and T4 help to control your ...
Free Androgen Index
Free Androgen Index Does this test have other names? FAI What is this test? A free androgen index (FAI) is a ratio figured out after a blood test for testosterone. It's used to see whether you have abnormal androgen levels. Both men and women make male hormones called androgens, which include testosterone. During puberty, testosterone helps children develop into adults. As you age, levels of this hormone can fall. This causes health problems for both men and women. A testosterone test is a blood test th...
Free Light Chains (Blood)
Free Light Chains (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum free light chain assay, Freelite What is this test? This test looks for signs of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your blood. Immunoglobulins are made by white blood cells called plasma cells to help protect you against infection and illness. Plasma, or myeloma, cells are found in your bone marrow. Light chains, also called Bence Jones proteins, make up part of the structure of immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins are also made up of heavy...
Free T4
Free T 4 Does this test have other names? Free thyroxine test What is this test? This test measures the levels of free T 4 , or free thyroxine, in your blood. A free T 4 test is used to find out how well your thyroid is working. T 4 is one of two hormones produced by the thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland in your neck. Some T 4 in your blood is bound to proteins, and some T 4 circulates freely, or unbound from proteins. Testing for unbound T 4 is more accurate than testing for bound T 4 . The free T 4 te...
Free Testosterone
Free Testosterone Does this test have other names? Free T-index What is this test? This test measures the amount of unattached, or "free," testosterone in your blood. Testosterone is a male sex hormone (androgen) that helps male features develop. Testosterone is made in the testes and the adrenal glands. It causes the changes that occur in boys during puberty. Testosterone helps hair and muscles grow. It also helps the penis and testes grow. Testosterone also causes a boy's voice to deepen. Men continue...
Galactosemia
Galactosemia Does this test have other names? Galactosemia newborn screen, quantitative erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) analysis What is this test? This test looks for enzymes in the red blood cells in your child's blood. Galactosemia is a rare inherited disorder that keeps the body from breaking down a simple sugar called galactose. Galactose is found in lactose. Lactose is the sugar found in many kinds of foods and in all dairy products. Normally when you eat something that ...
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Does this test have other names? GGTP, gamma-glutamyl transferase, GGT What is this test? This test looks for an enzyme, or protein, called gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) in your blood. GGT is found in liver cells. This test helps your doctor look for possible damage to your liver or its ducts. It can also help tell the difference between liver and bone disease if your results from a different blood test called alkaline phosphatase are abnormal. Why do I need this test...
Gastrin
Gastrin Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test measures the amount of gastrin in your blood. Gastrin is a hormone made by G cells in the lower part of your stomach. It controls the release of gastric acid by other cells in the stomach when you eat. You need gastric acid to break down your food, but too much gastric acid can cause stomach problems. Why do I need this test? If you have recurrent peptic ulcers, you may have this test to determine whether you also have Zollinger-E...
Gene Mutation for Cystic Fibrosis in Newborns (Blood)
Gene Mutation for Cystic Fibrosis in Newborns (Blood) Does this test have other names? Genetic test for cystic fibrosis What is this test? This is a blood test that screens newborn babies for cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common genetic diseases in the U.S. Most cases of CF are diagnosed in babies before their first birthday. CF is a potentially life-threatening condition in which your glands secrete abnormally thick mucus that harms different systems in your body, including the airways and panc...
Giardia Antigen (Stool)
Giardia Antigen (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool antigen test What is this test? This is a stool sample test to look for the parasite Giardia intestinalis , which causes an infection of the small bowel called giardiasis or travelers' diarrhea. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, belly (abdominal) cramps, dehydration, and vague feelings of discomfort. Giardiasis outbreaks are common in daycare centers and among people who travel internationally. Why do I need this test? You might n...
Glomerular Filtration Rate
Glomerular Filtration Rate Does this test have other names? GFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate, EGFR What is this test? This is either a blood test or a urine test that looks for changes in how your kidneys function. Your kidneys have tiny filters called glomeruli. The filters help remove waste from your blood. Your glomerular filtration rate is the rate at which your blood is filtered each minute. A glomerular filtration rate can be estimated with great accuracy, based on your weight and age. Th...
Glucose (Blood)
Glucose (Blood) Does this test have other names? Blood sugar, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), random plasma glucose What is this test? A blood glucose test is a blood test that tells you if your level of glucose, or blood sugar, is within a healthy range. Fasting plasma glucose, or FPG, is a common test used to diagnose and monitor diabetes or prediabetes. Why do I need this test? A healthcare provider may recommend a blood glucose test if you have symptoms of diab...
Glucose (CSF)
Glucose (CSF) Does this test have other names? CSF glucose What is this test? This test measures the amount of glucose, or blood sugar, in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. People with serious infections that have reached the brain or spinal cord usually have lower glucose levels in their CSF than healthy people do. This test is usually part of an overall look at CSF to help diagnose a central nervous system disorder or infection. Normally, your brain is...
Glucose (Urine)
Glucose (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine glucose What is this test? A urine glucose test is used to indirectly determine whether your levels of glucose, or blood sugar, are within a healthy range. It's used to monitor both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. If your blood glucose rises above normal, your kidneys get rid of the extra glucose in your urine. That's why a urine glucose test may be able to determine whether your blood glucose is too high. Although easier to perform than a blood test, a...
Glucose Tolerance
Glucose Tolerance Does this test have other names? Oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT What is this test? An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is used to screen for diabetes or prediabetes. To start the test, you have a blood glucose test done. Then you will drink a liquid rich in glucose, or sugar. For the next two to three hours, your healthcare provider will draw your blood to check your blood glucose levels and determine your risk for diabetes, prediabetes, or gestational diabetes. In rare instances,...
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Does this test have other names? glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [de-hy-DRAW-jen-aze] deficiency, G6PD deficiency, G6PDD What is this test? This is a blood test to find out whether you have low amounts of an enzyme called glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Experts estimate that 400 million people worldwide have a G6PD deficiency. This enzyme deficiency is a genetic disorder that affects mostly males. A mutation in the G6PD gene causes the red blood cells to break down...
Gonorrhea (Urine)
Gonorrhea (Urine) Does this test have other names? Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. gonorrhoeae What is this test? This urine test helps find out whether you are infected with gonorrhea. Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD). Symptoms of gonorrhea may be mild at first, but the infection can be serious if not treated. It can damage organs, cause infertility in women and some men, and even lead to a life-threatening bacterial infection. Cases of gonorrhea have declined in the U.S. in recent ye...
Gonorrhea Culture (Discharge)
Gonorrhea Culture (Discharge) Does this test have other names? GC, STD culture, culture of the cervix, urethra, and anus What is this test? Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the bacterium N. gonorrhoeae. These bacteria often thrive in moist areas of the reproductive tract. But they can also grow in the eyes, mouth and throat, or anus. This test uses body fluids from the affected areas as the sample. These areas are often the cervix, urethra, penis, or rectum. Lab technicians th...
Gonorrhea Culture (DNA Probe)
Gonorrhea Culture (DNA Probe) Does this test have other names? Nucleic acid hybridization test, DNA probe test, molecular probe test What is this test? This test looks for DNA of gonorrhea bacteria in a sample of bodily fluid. Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by N. gonorrhoeae. This test is done on the body fluids collected from the affected areas. These are mostly the cervix, urethra, penis, or rectum. The samples are sent to a special lab where millions of copies of the DNA are...
Gram Stain
Gram Stain Does this test have other names? Gram stain procedure What is this test? This test looks at bodily fluids to find out whether you have a bacterial infection—and if so, which kind. A gram stain can be used on sputum, blood, urine, and the fluid in your spine and joints. If you have a bacterial infection, your fluid sample will have bacteria in it that are either gram-positive or gram-negative. Either can cause illness. The gram stain test will cause the bacteria to turn certain colors. This wi...
Growth Hormone (Blood)
Growth Hormone (Blood) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test measures the amount of growth hormone (GH) in your blood. GH is made in your pituitary gland. It affects height, bone, and muscle growth in children. It affects how adults feel and look, as well as their bone and muscle health. GH is made in a pulse-like manner. Most GH is made while you sleep. When you're awake, little or possibly no GH is found in your blood. That makes it hard to test your GH level. Specialists h...
Growth Hormone Antibody
Growth Hormone Antibody Does this test have other names? Anti-human GH antibodies, growth hormone neutralizing antibodies What is this test? This test looks for growth hormone (GH) antibodies in your blood. GH is used to manage height issues linked to a growth hormone deficiency (GHD). If your body makes GH antibodies in response to GH treatment, the treatment may not work the way it should. Why do I need this test? You might have this test if your healthcare provider suspects that your GH treatment isn...
Growth Hormone with Stimulation (Blood)
Growth Hormone with Stimulation (Blood) Does this test have other names? GH, GHD, arginine, insulin tolerance test or insulin-induced hypoglycemia, clonidine, L-dopa, glucagon, growth-hormone-releasing hormone, GHRH What is this test? This test measures the level of growth hormone (GH) in your blood. GH is made in your pituitary gland. It affects height, bone, and muscle growth in children. It affects how adults look and feel, as well as their bone and muscle health. GH is made in a pulse-like manner. M...
Growth Hormone with Suppression (Blood)
Growth Hormone with Suppression (Blood) Does this test have other names? GH What is this test? This test measures the level of growth hormone (GH) in your blood. GH is made in your pituitary gland. It affects height, bone, and muscle growth in children. It affects how adults look and feel, as well as their bone and muscle health. GH is made in a pulse-like manner. Most GH is made while you sleep. When you're awake, little or possibly no GH is found in your blood. That makes it hard to test your GH level...
Haemophilus Influenzae Antibody
Haemophilus influenzae Antibody Does this test have other names? Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) IgG antibody level What is this test? This test measures the amount of anti-Hib IgG immunoglobulin, or antibody, in your blood. There are many types of Haemophilus influenza bacteria. They can live in your mouth, throat, ears, and airways and don't always cause illness. H. influenza type b (Hib) is one of the most serious types. It doesn't cause the flu, although it has a similar-sounding name. It causes...
Haptoglobin
Haptoglobin Does this test have other names? HPT, hemoglobin-binding protein, Hp What is this test? This test measures the level of a protein called haptoglobin in your blood. Haptoglobin is made by your liver. It binds to a type of hemoglobin that's made when red blood cells die. This haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex is removed from your body by your liver. This leads to a low blood level of haptoglobin. The level of haptoglobin in your blood helps your healthcare provider figure out what type of anemia ...
HCG (Blood)
HCG (Blood) Does this test have other names? Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone test, serum pregnancy test What is this test? Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) is a type of hormone. Both men and women have small amounts of HCG in their body at all times. When a woman is pregnant, her body produces much more HCG than usual. In a healthy pregnancy, the amount of HCG in the blood increases substantially throughout the first three months. This blood test measures how much HCG is in your blood. This test ...
HCG (Urine)
HCG (Urine) Does this test have other names? Human chorionic gonadotropin urine test, urine pregnancy test What is this test? This test measures the amount of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in your urine. When you get pregnant, your body makes HCG. In a healthy pregnancy, the amount of HCG in the blood increases a lot over a short time, usually doubling every two days. HCG can be found in your urine two to three days after it can be measured in your blood. This is often about the same time that you ...
HDL Cholesterol
HDL Cholesterol Does this test have other names? High-density lipoprotein cholesterol What is this test? An HDL cholesterol test measures the amount of high-density lipoprotein ("good") cholesterol in your blood. High HDL levels may lower your risk for heart disease. Why do I need this test? You may have this test as part of a routine screening to find out your risk for heart disease. What other tests might I have along with this test? An HDL test is often done as part of a comprehensive lipid panel to ...
Helicobacter Pylori Antibody
Helicobacter Pylori Antibody Does this test have other names? H. pylori What is this test? This test measures the levels of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) antibodies in your blood. H. pylori are bacteria that can invade your gut. H. pylori infection is one of the major causes of peptic ulcer disease. This happens when inflammation caused by the bacteria affects the mucus coating of your stomach or duodenum, the first section of your small intestine. This leads to sores called peptic ulcers on this lini...
Helicobacter Pylori Culture
Helicobacter Pylori Culture Does this test have other names? H. pylori culture What is this test? This test finds out if you are infected with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. This is a common bacterium. It's more common in developing nations and has been linked to poor hygiene in living conditions, especially for children. Infection is more common in children than adults. A culture test means that a tissue sample is placed in a special dish or tube containing nutrients normally found in the organism's env...
Helicobacter Pylori Urea Breath
Helicobacter Pylori Urea Breath Does this test have other names? Urea breath test, UBT What is this test? This is a breath test that checks for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a common infection. H. pylori bacteria are spread through contact with feces from an infected person. Many people get this infection during childhood. The bacteria often live in the stomach lining without causing any symptoms or problems. But for some people, these bacteria cause ulcers and other stomach irritations. While they l...
Hematocrit
Hematocrit Does this test have other names? HCT, packed cell volume, PCV What is this test? This test measures how much of your blood is made up of red blood cells. Normal blood contains white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets, and the fluid portion called plasma. The word hematocrit means to separate . In this test, your red blood cells are separated from the rest of your blood so they can be measured. Your hematocrit (HCT) shows whether you have a normal amount of red blood cells, too many, or t...
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin Does this test have other names? Hb, Hgb, H and H, Hemoglobin and hematocrit What is this test? This is a blood test to find out how much hemoglobin is in your blood. Hemoglobin is the main part of your red blood cells. Hemoglobin is made up of a protein called globin and a compound called heme. Heme consists of iron and a pigment called porphyrin, which gives your blood its red color. Hemoglobin serves the important role of carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide through your blood. If your hemog...
Hemoglobin (Fetal)
Hemoglobin (Fetal) Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin analysis, hemoglobin electrophoresis What is this test? A fetal hemoglobin test is a blood test that checks the amount of fetal hemoglobin (Hb F) in the blood. Fetal hemoglobin is one of many types of hemoglobin. It is present in high levels in fetuses, but usually drops to trace amounts about six months after birth. If Hb F is at higher than normal levels, it can mean you have thalassemia, myeloid leukemia, or sickle cell anemia. Why do I n...
Hemoglobin C
Hemoglobin C Does this test have other names? Hemoglobin C blood test, hemoglobin electrophoresis, Hgb electrophoresis What is this test? Hemoglobin C is a blood test used to find out if you have hemoglobin C disease, a blood disorder passed on to you from your parents. It causes your red blood cells to have hemoglobin C instead of the hemoglobin A found in most people. In the blood, hemoglobin C forms crystals and makes the blood cells less flexible. This causes your blood to not flow well. Hemoglobin ...
Hemoglobin S
Hemoglobin S Does this test have other names? Hgb S test, sickle cell test, Sickledex What is this test? This test looks for an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S in your blood. Hemoglobin is the main part of your red blood cells. It carries oxygen through your blood. If your hemoglobin level is too low, you may not be able to supply the cells in your body with the oxygen they need to survive. Hemoglobin S (Hgb S) is an abnormal type of hemoglobin that you can inherit from your parents. Hgb...
Hepatitis A Antibody
Hepatitis A Antibody Does this test have other names? IgM, IgM anti-HAV What is this test? This test looks for antibodies in your blood called IgM. The test can find out whether you are infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver, often caused by an infection. Most hepatitis infections are caused by 1 of 5 viruses: hepatitis A, B, C, D, or E. Because the symptoms of all of these infections are similar, this blood test can tell your healthcare provider which type...
Hepatitis B Core Antibody
Hepatitis B Core Antibody Does this test have other names? IgM anti-HBc, HBcAb What is this test? This test looks for antibodies called IgM in your blood. The test is used to find out whether you are actively infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV has a central core and a surrounding envelope. Your immune system makes IgM antibodies to the core of HBV during the active stage of infection. It can take 60 to 150 days to develop symptoms of hepatitis B after you become infected. Hepatitis B core Ig...
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Does this test have other names? HBsAg What is this test? This test looks for hepatitis B surface antigens in your blood. The test is used to find out whether you have a recent or long-standing infection from the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV has proteins called antigens on its surface that cause your immune system to make antibodies. It can take several months to develop symptoms of hepatitis B after you become infected. Hepatitis B surface antigens can be found in your blood...
Hepatitis C Antibody
Hepatitis C Antibody Does this test have other names? Antibody to HCV, anti-HCV What is this test? A hepatitis C antibody test is used to find out if you are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). When your body is infected with a virus, it produces antibodies to fight the virus off. The hepatitis C antibody test looks for antibodies that the body produces in response to the presence of HCV. HCV infects the liver, often causing inflammation and damage. It is more common in developing nations. Why do...
Hepatitis Panel
Hepatitis Panel Does this test have other names? HbsAg, HbcAB IgM, HA AB IgM, Hep C AB; hepatitis B surface antigen; hepatitis B core antibody IgM; hepatitis A antibody IgM; hepatitis C antibodies What is this test? This is a panel of blood tests that looks to see whether you have a hepatitis virus infection. The tests look for either antibodies that your body has made against a hepatitis virus or parts of a specific virus. Hepatitis affects the liver. It is commonly caused by one of several hepatitis v...
Herpes Simplex Virus Antibody
Herpes Simplex Virus Antibody Does this test have other names? HSV-1 antibodies, HSV-2 antibodies What is this test? The herpes simplex virus antibodies test is a blood test that screens for the herpes simplex virus (HSV). Culturing a sample from an active outbreak of HSV is the best method to diagnose a current infection. But the herpes simplex virus antibodies test can help identify the recurrence of a previous infection. Why do I need this test? If you suspect that you have herpes but do not have an ...
Herpes Simplex Virus Culture and Typing
Herpes Simplex Virus Culture and Typing Does this test have other names? Viral isolation What is this test? This test looks for which type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) is causing your infection. HSV is a common virus that comes in two types: HSV1 and HSV2. Each type of HSV causes a number of health problems. Viral culture is the best test to confirm a herpes simplex infection. HSV1 is more common. It's carried in saliva and typically causes outbreaks of cold sores around the mouth. HSV2 affects the gen...
HIV Genotypic Resistance
HIV Genotypic Resistance Does this test have other names? Genotypic resistance assay What is this test? This blood test looks at the genetic makeup of a strain of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. If you are infected with HIV, this test may be done before you start taking antiviral medicine. It can help your healthcare provider figure out the best treatment to use. This helps because drug-resistant HIV strains continue to change. The test can also help figure out if a medicine you are taking works for yo...
HIV Viral Load
HIV Viral Load Does this test have other names? Viral load test, RNA tests What is this test? This is a blood test to measure the amount of HIV in your blood. HIV causes AIDS. This test should be done 2 ot 8 weeks after you're diagnosed with HIV and then every 3 to 4 months during long-term therapy. If your treatment is effective, your viral load should go down in 4 to 6 months. Although HIV antibody testing is widely used to detect HIV, viral load testing can also diagnose the infection. Because the vi...
HIV-1 Antibody
HIV-1 Antibody Does this test have other names? HIV test; human immunodeficiency virus antibody test, type 1, HIV p24 antigen What is this test? The test looks for HIV-1 antibodies in your blood. Your body makes these antibodies when you have been exposed to HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. All tests for HIV antibodies will look for HIV-1, which is more common than HIV-2 in the U.S. Combination tests have been developed to find HIV antibodies and HIV antigens called p24 antigens. The HIV antibody test r...
HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Screen
HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Screen Does this test have other names? Rapid HIV antibody test What is this test? This test looks for HIV infection in your blood or saliva. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. About 20% of people who are infected with HIV don't know it because they may not have symptoms. HIV comes in two forms: HIV-1, which is found worldwide, and HIV-2, which is mainly found in western Africa, although it has spread to the U.S. This test is one of several tests that look for HIV infection. Some of th...
HLA Antibody
HLA Antibody Does this test have other names? HLA antibody screening, HLA screening assay What is this test? This test looks for antibodies against a certain cell marker called a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in your blood. The test is used if you need an organ transplant, to help find an organ that's as close to yours as possible. Different forms of the HLA antibody are involved in autoimmune diseases. These are diseases in which the body attacks its own tissues. The HLA test has also been used to iden...
HLA Antigen
HLA Antigen Does this test have other names? Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing What is this test? This test looks at the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in your blood. This test is used if you need an organ or stem-cell transplant, to find an organ or stem cells that are as close to yours as possible. An improper match if you need a stem-cell transplant could cause the stem cells to harm you. A mismatched organ transplant can cause the organ to fail and be rejected. HLAs are proteins found on the surf...
HLA-B27 Antigen
HLA-B27 Antigen Does this test have other names? Human lymphocyte antigen B27, human leukocyte A antigen, white blood cell antigens, histocompatibility leukocyte A antigen What is this test? This test looks for HLA-B27, an antigen, or protein, found on the surface of infection-fighting white blood cells. If you have HLA-B27, you may have an autoimmune disease. Autoimmune diseases occur when your immune system sees its own cells as foreign invaders and destroys them. The most common autoimmune disorders ...
Homocysteine
Homocysteine Does this test have other names? Total homocysteine (hoe-moe-SIST-een) What is this test? This test measures levels of homocysteine in your blood. Homocysteine is a type of amino acid your body naturally makes. At high levels, homocysteine can damage the lining of arteries and encourage blood clotting. As a result, high levels may raise your risk for coronary artery disease, heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes. Having low levels of vitamin B-12 (cobalamin), vitamin B-6 (pyridoxine), vit...
HSV DNA (CSF)
HSV DNA (CSF) Does this test have other names? Herpes simplex 1 infection, herpes simplex 2 infection What is this test? This test looks for the herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It diagnoses herpes simplex infection in the nervous system. The test is especially useful to find out whether HSV is causing an infection of the brain (encephalitis) or an infection of the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and brain (meningitis). There are two types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. HSV-...
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Does this test have other names? HPV DNA test, DNA Pap, HPV co-test What is this test? This test checks for the human papillomavirus (HPV) around the cervix. HPVs can cause warts, including plantar warts on the bottom of the feet and genital warts. They can also cause different kinds of cancers, including cervical, throat, and anal cancers. More than 100 types of HPVs have been identified. Relatively few carry a high cancer risk. HPV can travel from person to person during sex...
Immunofixation (Blood)
Immunofixation (Blood) Does this test have other names? IFE, immunofixation electrophoresis What is this test? This blood test finds out if you are abnormally making or losing protein. It can also find out if you are having problems absorbing protein. This test helps diagnose or monitor conditions linked to health problems like the blood cancer multiple myeloma. For this test, your blood sample goes through a complex procedure called electrophoresis. This process singles out the different proteins in yo...
Immunofixation and Protein Electrophoresis (CSF)
Immunofixation and Protein Electrophoresis (CSF) Does this test have other names? IPE CSF, CSF protein electrophoresis, immunofixation electrophoresis What is this test? This test looks for certain proteins in a sample of your cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord. This test uses an electrical current on a CSF sample to separate out certain types of protein called immunoglobulins. Normally, your CSF has little protein in it. An increase in the amount of ...
Immunofixation by Electrophoresis (Urine)
Immunofixation by Electrophoresis (Urine) Does this test have other names? Immunofixation electrophoresis, IFE What is this test? This test separates and measures proteins in your urine. It looks for an abnormal protein called monoclonal protein, or M-protein. An M-protein is a type of abnormal immunoglobulin made by plasma cells, a kind of white blood cell. Your body uses immunoglobulins to make antibodies that help attack invaders such as germs. If your body makes M-protein, it may mean that you have ...
Immunohistochemical Test for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors
Immunohistochemical Test for Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors Does this test have other names? IHC testing What is this test? This test looks for several types of receptors on cells in a sample of breast cancer tissue. Fifty percent to 70% of breast cancers depend on the hormone estrogen to grow. A few breast cancers can grow without estrogen. The cancer cells that depend on estrogen make many estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR), or both. These receptors grab onto the hormones that f...
Insulin-Like Growth Factor
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Does this test have other names? IGF, IGF-1 What is this test? This test measures the amount of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in your blood. IGF-1 is a hormone found naturally in your blood. Its main job is to regulate the effects of growth hormone (GH) in your body. Normal IGF-1 and GH functions include tissue and bone growth. IGF-1 is formed in different tissues as a result of GH in the blood. Some disorders and diseases, such as pituitary tumors, can cause your body ...
International Normalized Ratio
International Normalized Ratio Does this test have other names? INR, standardized prothrombin time What is this test? This blood test looks to see how well your blood clots. The international normalized ratio (INR) is a standardized number that's figured out in the lab. If you take blood thinners, also called anti-clotting medicines or anticoagulants, it's especially important to check your INR. The INR is figured out using the results of the prothrombin time (PT) test. This measures the time it takes f...
Intrinsic Factor Antibody
Intrinsic Factor Antibody Does this test have other names? IF antibody; intrinsic factor antibody level; intrinsic factor blocking antibody measurement; antibody level, intrinsic factor What is this test? This is a blood test for pernicious anemia, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B 12 . The disease used to be life-threatening, but today it can be treated with vitamin B 12 shots or pills. To get enough vitamin B 12 , your body needs a protein called intrinsic factor (IF). This protein is made ...
Iron (Blood)
Iron (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum Fe What is this test? This test measures the level of iron in your blood. Iron is an essential trace element in your blood. It helps your body make healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout your bloodstream. Having too little or too much iron can lead to health problems. Too little iron in your body can cause a condition called anemia. When this happens, your blood doesn't have enough iron to make the number of red blood cells ne...
Iron and Total Iron-Binding Capacity
Iron and Total Iron-Binding Capacity Do these tests have other names? Iron (Fe), serum iron, TIBC What are these tests? The serum iron test measure the amount of iron in your blood. The total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) test looks at how well the iron moves through your body. Iron is an important mineral that your body needs to stay healthy. Your body uses iron to make hemoglobin, the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body. If you don't have enough iron, you may not ha...
Ketone Bodies (Blood)
Ketone Bodies (Blood) Does this test have other names? Ketones, serum; ketones, blood What is this test? This blood test measures ketones, a byproduct of digestion, in your blood. When you have a high level of ketones in your blood, it's called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a complication of diabetes that can be fatal if it's not treated. When you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin, a hormone that regulates the metabolism of fat and carbohydrates. Or it can't properly use insulin...
Ketone Bodies (Urine)
Ketone Bodies (Urine) Does this test have other names? Ketone test, urine ketones What is this test? This test is used to check the level of ketones in your urine. Normally, your body burns sugar for energy. But if you have diabetes, you may not have enough insulin for the sugar in your bloodstream to be used for fuel. When this happens, your body burns fat instead and produces substances called ketones. The ketones end up in your blood and urine. It's normal to have a small amount of ketones in your bo...
Kidney Stone (Urine)
Kidney Stone (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine stone risk profile, 24-hour collection What is this test? This test checks your urine for chemicals that might cause your body to form kidney stones. The test also looks for blood in your urine, which can be a symptom of kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard masses of minerals and salts that can form in your kidneys. They can be as small as a grain of sand or more than an inch in diameter. Usually theses stones or crystals pass through your bod...
Lactate Dehydrogenase (CSF)
Lactate Dehydrogenase (CSF) Does this test have other names? Lactic acid dehydrogenase (CSF), LDH CSF What is this test? This test measures the amount of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the clear liquid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. Enzymes are catalysts, or chemicals in your tissues and organs that cause the reactions necessary to provide energy to your cells. This test can help diagnose diseases and conditions that affect your central nervou...
Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes
Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes Does this test have other names? LDH, lactic dehydrogenase What is this test? This is a blood test to measure the different LDH isoenzymes that may be in your blood. Enzymes are proteins that cause chemical reactions in your body and provide energy. LDH enzymes are found in many tissues in the body, including the heart, red blood cells, liver, kidneys, brain, lungs, and skeletal muscles. LDH exists in five forms, or isoenzymes. Each isoenzyme has a slightly different str...
Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (Blood)
Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase (Blood) Does this test have other names? Lactic dehydrogenase, LDH, lactate dehydrogenase What is this test? This is a blood test that measures the level of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in your body. LDH is an enzyme, or catalyst, found in many different tissues in your body. These include your red blood cells, skeletal muscles, kidneys, brain, and lungs. When your LDH rises, it means that tissues may have been damaged or are diseased. Why do I need this test? You may have this t...
Lactose Tolerance (Blood)
Lactose Tolerance (Blood) Does this test have any other names? Lactose tolerance serum test What is this test? This is a test to see whether your body is able to break down lactose. Lactose is a type of sugar found in milk, cheese, ice cream, and other dairy products. Lactase, an enzyme in your stomach, breaks down lactose into two simple sugars: glucose and galactose. Within 2 hours of eating, your blood glucose level should rise. This blood test measures the increase. Why do I need this test? You may ...
Lactose Tolerance Hydrogen (Breath)
Lactose Tolerance Hydrogen (Breath) Does this test have other names? Hydrogen breath test, HBT, lactose breath test What is this test? This test measures the amount of hydrogen gas in your breath at regular intervals. It will show how well your body breaks down lactose, the sugar found in dairy products, and fructose, the sugar in fruit. This test also shows whether you have a high amount of bacteria in your small intestine. Normally, the lactose you eat is broken down in your small intestine. If it can...
LDL Cholesterol
LDL Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDL-C What is this test? This test measures the amount of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) in your blood. LDL cholesterol is often called "bad" cholesterol because it causes plaque to build up inside your arteries and leads to heart disease. Cholesterol screening is recommended for all adults ages 20 and older every 4 to 6 years. LDL cholesterol is one of a group of lipoproteins that can indicate heart disea...
Lead (Blood)
Lead (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum lead level, BLL What is this test? This test measures the amount of lead in your child's blood. It can find out whether your child has been exposed to lead. Before 1978, lead was a major ingredient in household paint. It still can be found in older homes and in the soil around them. Children can inhale lead dust or chew on items that use lead-based paint. High levels of lead in the blood can be toxic. Why does my child need this test? If you live in a ...
Lecithin-Sphingomyelin Ratio (Amniotic Fluid)
Lecithin-Sphingomyelin Ratio (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? L/S ratio What is this test? This test measures the amount of two substances, lecithin and sphingomyelin, that are found in the amniotic fluid during pregnancy. The two substances are surfactants. These are chemicals made by the lungs that let them to work properly. Without surfactants, the small air sacs in your lungs (alveoli) would collapse, preventing oxygen from entering the bloodstream. In the last 3 months of pregnancy...
Legionella Antibody
Legionella Antibody Does this test have other names? Legionnaires' disease antibody test, Legionella antibody assay What is this test? This test looks for an antibody that may be in your blood if you have Legionnaires' disease. Legionnaires' disease is a type of pneumonia or serious lung infection caused by bacteria called Legionella. Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes to fight infection or foreign invaders. The bacteria and the disease get their name because of an outbreak that occur...
Leptin (Blood)
Leptin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Leptin serum test What is this test? This test measures the amount of leptin in your blood. Leptin is a hormone that helps regulate your body weight by controlling your appetite and energy level. This test is used to figure out how much body fat you have. Generally, the amount of leptin in your blood is related to the amount of fat tissue in your body. Leptin is released into your blood by your fat stores. Its main job is to tell your brain to stop eating....
Lipase
Lipase Does this test have other names? Serum lipase What is this test? This test measures the amount of lipase in your blood. Lipase is an enzyme that is made by your pancreas. It helps your body digest fats. Higher levels of lipase may mean you have a problem with your pancreas. Most often this means acute pancreatitis, or sudden inflammation of the pancreas. Why do I need this test? You may need this test if your healthcare provider suspects that you have a pancreatic disorder. Signs and symptoms of ...
Lipid Panel
Lipid Panel Does this test have other names? Lipid profile, lipoprotein profile What is this test? This group of tests measures the amount of cholesterol and other fats in your blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are lipids, or fats. These fats are important for cell health, but they can be harmful when they build up in the blood. Sometimes they can lead to clogged, inflamed arteries, a condition call atherosclerosis. This may keep your heart from working normally. This panel of tests helps predict you...
Lipid Panel with Non-HDL Cholesterol
Lipid Panel with Non-HDL Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Non-HDL-C What is this test? This blood test checks the levels of cholesterol in your body. A lipid panel will show the levels of your total cholesterol, your LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and your HDL ("good") cholesterol. In general, the higher your total and LDL cholesterol levels, the higher your risk for coronary heart disease. But some heart attacks happen in people who don't have a high LDL level. Some researchers believe that measu...
Lipid Panel with Total Cholesterol: HDL Ratio
Lipid Panel with Total Cholesterol: HDL Ratio Does this test have other names? Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, cholesterol HDL ratio, cholesterol panel What is this test? This group of tests measures the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood. Cholesterol and triglycerides are fats (lipids). This panel measures: Total cholesterol HDL ("good") cholesterol LDL ("bad") cholesterol Triglycerides Total cholesterol is a measurement of both good and bad cholesterol. LDL cholesterol moves cho...
Lipoprotein(a) Cholesterol
Lipoprotein(a) Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Cholesterol Lp(a), Lp(a) What is this test? This test measures the level of lipoprotein (a), or Lp(a), in your blood. Lipoproteins are made of protein and fat. They carry cholesterol through your blood. Lp(a) is a type of low-density lipoprotein, or LDL ("bad") cholesterol. High levels of Lp(a) can create plaque. This is a buildup of cholesterol that limits blood flow through your arteries. A high level of Lp(a) can be a sign of cholesterol-rel...
Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2
Lipoprotein-Associated Phospholipase A2 Does this test have other names? Lp-PLA2 What is this test? This test looks for a specific lipoprotein, Lp-PLA2, in your blood. The test is used to help predict your risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Lipids are fats in your blood. Lipoproteins are combinations of fats and proteins that carry the fats in your bloodstream. If you have Lp-PLA2 in your blood, you may have fatty deposits in your arteries that are at risk of rupturing and causing heart disease...
Lithium
Lithium Does this test have other names? Lithium levels, serum lithium levels, lithium blood test What is this test? This test measures and monitors the amount of lithium in your blood. Lithium is a medicine used to treat psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorders, acute mania, and other mood disorders. This test is used to find out the right dose for you if you're just starting lithium treatment. The test is also used to make sure you continue to get the right amount for as long as you take this m...
Liver Kidney Microsomal Antibody
Liver Kidney Microsomal Antibody Does this test have other names? Antibodies to liver and kidney microsomes, anti-LKM What is this test? This test looks for a certain type of antibody in your child's blood. The antibody is called liver kidney microsomal antibody. Having this antibody may mean that your child has liver damage caused by a form of hepatitis. Hepatitis means a condition in which your liver is inflamed. Some types of hepatitis are caused by the hepatitis viruses, but this test checks for ant...
Liver Panel
Liver Panel Does this test have other names? Liver function test (LFT); hepatic function test; liver function panel (LFP); Alb, Tbil, Dbil, Alk Phos, ALT, Tot Protein What is this test? This group of tests measures specific proteins and enzymes in your blood. Your liver is the second largest organ in your body. It converts the food you eat into energy and nutrients and filters waste from your blood. A liver panel checks the health of your liver and can help diagnose liver damage or disease. The panel co...
Lupus Anticoagulant
Lupus Anticoagulant Does this test have other names? LA, Lupus Anticoagulant Panel, Lupus Inhibitor, LA Sensitive PTT, PTT-LA, Dilute Russell Viper Venom Test, DRVVT, Modified Russell Viper Venom Test, MRVVT What is this test? This is a special blood test to find out if your body is making certain antibodies or proteins that cause you to have a blood-clotting disorder. It does not mean you have lupus, specific type of autoimmune disorder. Antibodies are proteins in the blood that help you fight off fore...
Luteinizing Hormone (Blood)
Luteinizing Hormone (Blood) Does this test have other names? LH What is this test? This test measures the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) in your blood. LH is made by your pituitary gland. In women, the pituitary sends out LH during the ovulation part of the menstrual cycle. This tells the ovaries to release a mature egg. In men, LH causes the testes to make testosterone. This test can help find out the cause of fertility problems in both men and women. A higher LH level can help a woman find out the ...
Magnesium (Blood)
Magnesium (Blood) Does this test have other names? Mg What is this test? This test measures the amount of the mineral magnesium in your blood. Magnesium is found in your cells and bones. It's necessary for many different chemical reactions in your body. Your heart needs magnesium to beat properly. Your muscles need magnesium to contract and relax. Your nerves need magnesium to send signals. Magnesium also plays a role in controlling blood sugar and blood pressure. Your body uses magnesium to absorb calc...
MDMA Drug Screen (Urine)
MDMA Drug Screen (Urine) Does this test have other names? MDMA urine screening test What is this test? This is a urine test to screen for MDMA, the abbreviation for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (METH-ill-eh-NED-ee-oh-METH-am-FEH-tuh-meen). This is a street drug also called Ecstasy. It's a popular drug at raves, dance clubs, and high school parties. Street names for MDMA include E, Molly, XTC, Adam, clarity, Stacy, lover's speed, and essence. MDMA comes in capsules or tablets. It can also be crushed and...
Measles, Mumps, Rubella Antibody
Measles, Mumps, Rubella Antibody Does this test have other names? Rubella antibody, German measles antibody, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), rubeola antibody, antibody titer What is this test? This test looks for antibodies to three diseases: measles, mumps, and rubella. The test can find out whether you are immune to the three diseases. All three are quite contagious. If you've had them or been vaccinated against them, your immune system made antibodies to fight the viruses that cause them. If you a...
Mercury (Blood)
Mercury (Blood) Does this test have other names? Hg level What is this test? This test measures the amount of mercury in your blood. Mercury is a heavy metal that can be toxic. It occurs naturally as a liquid at room temperature and as an odorless vapor. You can be exposed to mercury from polluted air or water. You can also be exposed if you work in an industry that still uses mercury, from eating fish that are high in mercury, and from some complementary and alternative health remedies. Long-term expos...
Mercury (Urine)
Mercury (Urine) Does this test have other names? Hg urine What is this test? This test measures the amount of mercury in your urine. Mercury is a heavy metal that can be toxic. It occurs naturally as a liquid at room temperature and as an odorless vapor. You can be exposed to mercury from polluted air or water. You can also be exposed if you work in an industry that still uses mercury, from eating fish that are high in mercury, and from some complementary and alternative health remedies. Long-term expos...
Metanephrines (Blood)
Metanephrines (Blood) Does this test have other names? Metanephrine, plasma free What is this test? This test measures the substances metanephrine and normetanephrine in your blood. It helps find out whether you have a tumor of the adrenal glands called pheochromocytoma. The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys. They make the hormone adrenaline and other adrenaline-like chemicals called cate­cholamines. Adrenaline regulates your blood pressure and helps you cope with stress. Metanephrine and normet...
Methylmalonic Acid (Blood)
Methylmalonic Acid (Blood) Does this test have other names? MMA What is this test? This test measures the amount of a substance called methylmalonic acid (MMA) in your blood. MMA is typically made in tiny amounts when you digest protein. Your body makes large amounts of MMA if you have a drop in the amount of vitamin B-12. MMA is excreted through your kidneys. Your body needs B-12 to make red blood cells and to help your central nervous system work as it should. Low levels of B-12 can cause anemia. This...
Methylmalonic Acid (Urine)
Methylmalonic Acid (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA), urinary MMA What is this test? This test measures the amount of a substance called methylmalonic acid (MMA) in your urine. MMA is typically made in tiny amounts when you digest protein. Your body makes large amounts of MMA if you have a decrease in the amount of vitamin B-12. MMA is excreted in your urine. Your body needs B-12 to make red blood cells and to help your central nervous system work as it should. Lo...
Microalbumin (Urine)
Microalbumin (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine microalbumin What is this test? This test looks for minuscule amounts of albumin in your urine. The test can find out whether diabetes has damaged your kidneys. Albumin is a protein needed for tissue growth and healing. It can leak into your urine when your kidneys aren't working as they should. Because such small amounts of albumin may not show up during routine urine testing, healthcare providers use this test to look for changes in albumin l...
Microscopic Urinalysis
Microscopic Urinalysis Does this test have other names? Microscopic urine analysis, microscopic examination of urine What is this test? This test looks at a sample of your urine under a microscope. It can see cells from your urinary tract, blood cells, crystals, bacteria, parasites, and cells from tumors. This test is often used to confirm the findings of other tests or add information to a diagnosis. Why do I need this test? You may need this test to help your healthcare provider find out what health p...
Mononucleosis (Blood)
Mononucleosis (Blood) Does this test have other names? Mono test, monospot test, Epstein-Barr test What is this test? This test looks for signs in your blood that you have the Epstein-Barr virus. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common virus that's part of the herpes virus family. It causes infectious mononucleosis, or mono. Mono is passed from person to person through saliva. Symptoms usually appear within four to six weeks after exposure and ease in one to two months. If you have mono, you may have a...
MRSA Culture
MRSA Culture Does this test have other names? Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus culture What is this test? This test looks for bacteria called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a fluid sample from your body. MRSA is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to certain antibiotics. These include methicillin and related medicines like oxacillin, penicillin, and amoxicillin. MRSA infections can be life-threatening. Outbreaks can affect patients and visitors in hospitals and o...
Mumps Antibody
Mumps Antibody Does this test have other names? Mumps IgM and IgG antibodies, mumps PCR assay, mumps viral culture What is this test? This test looks for antibodies to the mumps virus in your blood. Mumps is a contagious disease that usually begins with flulike symptoms. The best-known symptom of the disease is swollen salivary glands. This causes painful swelling between the ear and jaw. But this swelling doesn't occur in everyone with the mumps. Some people have no symptoms at all. When you have the m...
Mycoplasma (Genital)
Mycoplasma (Genital) Does this test have other names? Mycoplasma culture What is this test? This test looks for microorganisms in a sample of secretions from your genital area. Mycoplasma are the smallest free-living organisms. They aren't bacteria or viruses. They don't have cell walls and can be many different shapes. Three species of mycoplasma are closely related: Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and ureaplasma spp. These may be present in women who have a urinary tract infection, gynecolog...
Mycoplasma (Sputum)
Mycoplasma (Sputum) Does this test have other names? Mycoplasma culture, antigen capture-enzyme immunoassay, Ag-EIA What is this test? This test looks at sputum, or the mucus from your lower airways. It finds out whether you have a lung infection caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae. These are organisms that can cause bronchitis and pneumonia. Mycoplasma are very small and are similar to bacteria. They are unique because they don't have cell walls. Most people affected by Mycoplasma are younger than 40. Many...
Myoglobin (Blood)
Myoglobin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum myoglobins, myoglobin-serum What is this test? This test measures the amount of a protein called myoglobin in your blood. It's done to help diagnose conditions caused by muscle damage. Myoglobin is found in your heart and skeletal muscles. There it captures oxygen that muscle cells use for energy. When you have a heart attack or severe muscle damage, myoglobin is released into your blood. Myoglobin increases in your blood 2 to 3 hours after the fi...
Myoglobin (Urine)
Myoglobin (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine myoglobin What is this test? This test measures a protein called myoglobin in your urine. The test can help find out whether your muscle tissue has been injured. Myoglobin is found in your heart and skeletal muscles. There it captures oxygen that muscle cells use for energy. But when you have a heart attack or severe muscle damage, myoglobin is released into your blood. Once there, it can rise to dangerous levels in your body. Your kidneys filter ...
Osmolality (Blood)
Osmolality (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum osmolality, osmolality serum What is this test? This test measures the concentration of dissolved particles (osmolality) in your blood. This test can help diagnose a fluid or electrolyte imbalance, including dehydration. Electrolytes are mineral salts that help move nutrients into your cells and waste products out of your cells. Electrolytes also control your acidity and pH levels. The more dilute your blood and urine are, the lower the concentra...
Osmolality (Stool)
Osmolality (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool osmolality What is this test? This test measures the concentration (osmolality) of certain particles in a sample of your watery stool. The amount of sodium, potassium, and other substances in your stool can affect its consistency. The test is used to find out why your stool isn't solid. Short-term (acute) diarrhea often clears up on its own within a few days. But it's considered long-term (chronic) diarrhea when the loose, watery bowel movements ...
Osmolality (Urine)
Osmolality (Urine) Does this test have other names? Osmotic gap, osmolal gap test What is this test? This test measures the concentration (osmolality) of particles in your urine. It finds out whether your electrolyte balance is normal and whether your kidneys are working as they should. Why do I need this test? You may have this test if your healthcare provider needs to look at the concentration of your urine, as well as at your fluid and electrolyte balance. This may be necessary if your provider suspe...
Ova and Parasites (Stool)
Ova and Parasites (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool sample examination, stool O&P, fecal smear What is this test? This test looks for parasites and their larvae or eggs in a sample of your stool. Parasites are organisms that can live within or on the human body and use it as a source of food. Many live in the digestive tract. Many parasites also cause illnesses. These include one-celled organisms, such as Giardia, and larger organisms such as pinworms. In their adult form, pinworms can ...
Oxalate (Urine)
Oxalate (Urine) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This is a urine test to see whether you have a high level of the chemical oxalate in your urine. Oxalate is a natural end product of metabolism in the body. It should leave your body through your urine. If your oxalate levels are too high, the extra oxalate can combine with calcium to form kidney stones. These stones are hard masses of chemicals that can get stuck in the urinary tract. They commonly cause severe pain. Calcium-oxalat...
Pancreatic Polypeptide
Pancreatic Polypeptide Does this test have other names? Plasma pancreatic polypeptide, PP, human pancreatic polypeptide What is this test? This test measures a substance in your blood called pancreatic polypeptide. Pancreatic polypeptide is secreted by cells in your pancreas. People who have neuroendocrine tumors have higher levels of this substance. These tumors can be functional or nonfunctional. Nonfunctional tumors are more common. They are called nonfunctional because they secrete substances that d...
Pap
Pap Does this test have other names? Pap smear, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou test, Pap smear test, vaginal smear technique What is this test? This test check the cells from inside the cervix for any changes that could lead to cancer. The cervix is the lower part of a woman's uterus that opens into the vagina. This test is named after Georgios Papanicolaou, MD, one of the doctors who developed this technique of testing for cervical cancer. Why do I need this test? The Pap test is most often used as a ...
Parathyroid Hormone
Parathyroid Hormone Does this test have other names? Parathyroid hormone assay, parathyrin, parathormone, PTH-C-Terminal What is this test? This test measures a substance called parathyroid hormone (PTH) in your blood. PTH is made by four tiny parathyroid glands in your neck. PTH circulates in your blood and is needed to regulate the level of calcium in your blood. Your heart, bones, nervous system, and kidneys need a normal calcium level in the blood to work the way they should. If your calcium level i...
Parvovirus
Parvovirus Does this test have other names? Parvovirus B19-specific IgG antibody, parvovirus B19 IgM, parvovirus B19 antibody What is this test? This is a blood test to check for current or past infections with parvovirus 19. This virus causes the common children's illness known as fifth disease (erythema infectiosum). The virus usually causes only mild illness in children. It can be dangerous for pregnant women or people with a weakened immune system. This is because they may not have the antibodies to...
Phenobarbital
Phenobarbital Does this test have other names? Phenobarbital drug monitoring, phenobarbital drug level What is this test? This test measures the amount of the medicine phenobarbital in your blood. Phenobarbital is used to treat epilepsy in children and adults. Epilepsy is a disease that causes brain seizures or convulsions. Phenobarbital may be used to treat different types of seizures, including tonic-clonic, complex, partial, or myoclonic seizures. Other names for medicines containing phenobarbital in...
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Phenylketonuria (PKU) Does this test have other names? PKU screening, Guthrie assay, PKU test What is this test? This is a blood test to screen newborns for phenylketonuria (PKU), a condition that can cause brain damage and severe intellectual disability if it goes untreated. The problems usually appear in the first year of life, causing infants to appear unusually sleepy and listless. They may have difficulty feeding and develop a red, itchy rash similar to eczema. In addition, such babies typically ha...
Plasmodium (Blood)
Plasmodium (Blood) Does this test have other names? Malaria antibody detection What is this test? This test looks for Plasmodium parasites in your blood. The parasites cause malaria, a serious disease that can be fatal if left untreated. You can get the parasites if you are bitten by an infected mosquito. Malaria is common in most of the topics, including countries in South Asia, the South Pacific, parts of Central and South America, and areas of Africa. This test may also be able to tell which type of ...
Platelet Antibody
Platelet Antibody Does this test have other names? Antiplatelet antibody test What is this test? This test looks for platelet antibodies in your blood in order to find out the cause of a low platelet count. Platelets are the part of your blood mainly responsible for clotting. They are made in your bone marrow along with white and red blood cells. Platelets are actually just fragments of cells. They make up a small part of your blood volume, but they have an important health function. If you have platele...
Platelets
Platelets Does this test have other names? Platelet count, thrombocyte count What is this test? This test measures the number of platelet cells in your blood. Platelets are disk-shaped cells that help your blood form clots. Platelets are also called thrombocytes. They are made in the spongy center of bones, called the bone marrow. About two-thirds of your platelets circulate in your blood all the time. They live for about 7 days. The number of platelets in your blood can give your healthcare provider va...
Pneumocystis Jirovecii (Tissue, Fluid)
Pneumocystis Jirovecii (Tissue, Fluid) Does this test have other names? P. jirovecii, PCP, pneumocystis pneumonia What is this test? This test looks for P. jirovecii fungus in your lung tissue or in fluid from a lung. P. jirovecii causes pneumocystis pneumonia. It is spread through the air from someone who is infected with it. Most people who are infected with P. jirovecii don't get pneumonia, though. People who do get it often have a weakened immune system. This can be because of: AIDS/HIV, cancer, or ...
Porphyrins (Urine)
Porphyrins (Urine) Does this test have other names? Mauzerall-Granick test What is this test? This test looks for chemicals called porphyrins in your urine. If you have high levels of these chemicals, you may have porphyria. Porphyria refers to a group of inherited or acquired diseases that prevent your body from properly making heme, the red pigment that contains iron. Heme is made in the bone marrow and liver. A large amount of heme is present as hemoglobin in red blood cells and bone marrow. Hemoglob...
Potassium
Potassium Does this test have other names? Serum potassium, serum electrolytes, K What is this test? This is a blood test to measure the amount of potassium in your blood. Potassium is one of several important minerals in your body called electrolytes. Ninety percent of your potassium is inside your cells, but a small amount circulates in your blood. You normally get potassium from your diet. Your body needs a constant level of potassium for normal nerve conduction, muscle contraction, heart function, a...
Prealbumin (Blood)
Prealbumin (Blood) Does this test have other names? PA, transthyretin test What is this test? The prealbumin screen is a blood test to see whether you are getting enough nutrition in your diet. Specifically, the test finds out if you have been getting enough protein. It also finds out whether you are at risk for malnutrition or already suffering from it. Prealbumin is a protein that is made mainly by your liver. Your body uses prealbumin to make other proteins. Prealbumin also carries thyroid hormones i...
Progesterone
Progesterone Does this test have other names? Progesterone blood test, serum progesterone What is this test? This test measures the level of a hormone called progesterone in your blood. Your ovaries make progesterone after ovulation. The most important role of progesterone is to get your uterus ready so that it can receive, implant, and support a fertilized egg during pregnancy. Progesterone levels are usually low during the first stage (follicular stage) of your menstrual cycle. Ovulation is called the...
Proinsulin (Blood)
Proinsulin (Blood) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This blood test measures proinsulin, a building block for insulin. To turn food into energy, your pancreas makes proinsulin. Proinsulin, in turn, is made into insulin and another protein called C-peptide. Problems making insulin can lead to diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, your pancreas becomes damaged and has trouble making or controlling the amount of insulin in your body. In type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body become...
Prolactin (Blood)
Prolactin (Blood) Does this test have other names? PRL test What is this test? This test measures the level of prolactin in your blood. Prolactin is a hormone made by the pituitary gland, which is in your brain. In women who are pregnant, prolactin stimulates the breasts to make breastmilk. If the prolactin-making cells in your pituitary gland begin to change (mutate) and grow out of control, they can form tumors (prolactinomas). Prolactinomas, also known as lactotroph adenomas, are usually not cancerou...
Prostate-Specific Antigen
Prostate-Specific Antigen Does this test have other names? PSA What is this test? This test measures the level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood. The cells of the prostate gland make the protein called PSA. Men normally have low levels of PSA. If your PSA levels start to rise, it could mean you have prostate cancer, benign prostate conditions, inflammation, or an infection. PSA testing is controversial because the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force discourages men who don't have any sy...
Protein C (Blood)
Protein C (Blood) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test measures the level of protein C in your blood. Protein C helps your blood clot normally. If you have too little protein C (protein C deficiency), it means that your blood may clot too much. Problems with blood clotting can be quite serious and possibly fatal if a blood clot reaches the lungs (pulmonary embolism). Having too much protein C may not let your blood clot well. You may be at risk for bleeding. Protein C defici...
Protein Electrophoresis (Blood)
Protein Electrophoresis (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum protein electrophoresis, SPEP What is this test? Protein electrophoresis is a test that measures specific proteins in the blood. The test separates proteins in the blood based on their electrical charge. The protein electrophoresis test is often used to find abnormal substances called M proteins. Protein electrophoresis also tests for other proteins and immunoglobulins. The presence of M proteins can be a sign of a type of cancer cal...
Protein S (Blood)
Protein S (Blood) What is this test? This test measures levels of protein S, a protein in the blood that helps prevent blood clots. Protein S works along with another protein in the blood, called protein C, to help your blood clot normally. If you don't have enough protein S in your blood, you have a condition called a protein S deficiency. This means that your blood may clot too much. Protein S deficiency is usually an inherited condition. You can inherit the abnormal (mutated) gene that reduces the le...
Prothrombin Time
Prothrombin Time Does this test have other names? Prothrombin time/PT, Pro time, Prothrombin time/International normalized ratio, PT/INR What is this test? The prothrombin time is one of several tests that evaluate whether your blood is clotting properly. Blood clotting, or coagulation, is needed to help stop bleeding. Proteins in the blood called clotting factors or coagulants help blood become sticky and clot. They change it from a liquid to a solid. As soon as you get a cut or the body starts to blee...
Protoporphyrin (Blood)
Protoporphyrin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Protoporphyrin, ZPP, zinc protoporphyrin test, erythrocyte protoporphyrin test What is this test? The protoporphyrin test is used to diagnose blood problems caused by lead. The test can show lead exposure or lead poisoning. Lead poisoning is extremely dangerous because lead can damage organs throughout the body. Lead poisoning does not always cause symptoms, so a blood test may be the only way to confirm lead exposure or poisoning. (Healthcare prov...
Quantitative Immunoglobulins
Quantitative Immunoglobulins Does this test have other names? IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM; immunology testing What is this test? This test measures the amount of antibodies called immunoglobulins in your blood. Your immune system makes antibodies to fight off bacteria, viruses, and other invaders that could harm your health. Your body makes several types of immunoglobulin antibodies: M, G, A, and E. They are called IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE. IgG is found in your blood and tissue. IgM is mostly found in your blood. ...
Quantitative Influenza Antibody (Nasal or Throat Swab)
Quantitative Influenza Antibody (Nasal or Throat Swab) Does this test have other names? Direct immunofluorescence (DFA), indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) antibody staining. What is this test? This test checks for influenza antibodies in a sample of secretions from your nose or throat. Influenza is a common illness of the respiratory system. It can have serious health effects or even be fatal, especially if you have a weakened immune system. Influenza A is more common and can be more serious. It spreads...
Rapid Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
Rapid Detection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Does this test have other names? RSV rapid detection, RSV indirect immunofluorescence assay, IFA What is this test? This test looks at cells taken from fluid in your nose or throat to see if you have respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). RSV attacks the upper respiratory tract. This test looks for antigens in these nose or throat cells to quickly diagnose an infection. An antigen is a substance in the virus that causes your body's immune system to make antibod...
Rapid Influenza Antigen (Nasal or Throat Swab)
Rapid Influenza Antigen (Nasal or Throat Swab) Does this test have other names? Rapid influenza diagnostic test, RIDT What is this test? This test quickly checks for signs of the influenza viruses A and B in a sample of secretions from your nose or throat. Influenza—or the "flu"—is an illness of the respiratory system. Influenza A is more common and can be more serious than influenza B. It spreads easily through water droplets in the air from coughs or sneezes of people who are infected. It often affect...
Rapid Plasma Reagin
Rapid Plasma Reagin Does this test have other names? RPR test, syphilis test What is this test? The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is a blood test that looks for antibodies to syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that first causes symptoms common to many other illnesses. Early symptoms include fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, and sore throat. In addition, people who have early-stage syphilis may have sores (lesions) that can pass the infection on to other people during sexual c...
Red Blood Cell Antibody
Red Blood Cell Antibody Does this test have other names? Erythrocyte Ab, RBC antibody identification What is this test? This test looks for antibodies to red blood cells (RBCs) in your blood. These antibodies can cause problems during blood transfusions or, if you're pregnant, with your unborn baby. Red blood cells fall into 1 of 4 main groups: O, A, B, or AB. Blood types can be further divided into other, minor groups. If you get blood from a person whose blood group is different from yours, your body ...
Retic Count
Retic Count Does this test have other names? Reticulocyte (reh-TICK-you-loh-SITE) count, retic What is this test? This test measures the number of reticulocytes in your blood. Reticulocytes are immature red blood cells that are still developing. The test finds out whether the marrow inside your bones is making red blood cells the way it should. Red blood cells flow throughout your bloodstream. They bring in fresh oxygen and taking away carbon dioxide. If your body doesn't make enough red blood cells, yo...
Rh Typing
Rh Typing Does this test have other names? Rh incompatibility, Rh factor What is this test? Rhesus (Rh) typing is used to determine whether you have a specific protein called Rh factor on the outer layer of your red blood cells. If you do not have Rh factor in your blood, you are Rh negative. If you do have Rh factor in your blood, you are Rh positive. Most people are Rh positive, but Rh negative blood types can be passed down from parents to children. Rh typing is important during pregnancy. If you are...
Rheumatoid Factor (Blood)
Rheumatoid Factor (Blood) Does this test have other names? RF blood test What is this test? This test measures the level of a substance called rheumatoid factor (RF) in your blood. It helps your healthcare provider find out whether you have rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RF is an autoantibody that responds to inflammation caused by RA. Antibodies increase in your blood when they find a foreign substance, such as bacteria. Autoantibodies, on the other hand, attack your own body's proteins. RF is linked to lo...
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Blood)
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (Blood) Does this test have other names? RMSF, Rocky Mountain spotted fever antibodies What is this test? Rocky Mountain spotted fever serum is a blood test used to look for antibodies, or proteins, that the body makes to fight Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) infections. RMSF is a serious bacterial infection caused by a bite from an infected tick. In most people, antibodies can't be found until at least a week after infection. A blood sample is taken about a week after s...
Rotavirus (Stool)
Rotavirus (Stool) Does this test have other names? Rotavirus test, Nucleic acid detection test, Isolation in cell culture What is this test? The rotavirus test is a stool test used to diagnose a rotavirus infection. Rotavirus affects the intestines and causes vomiting and diarrhea. This infection is especially common in young children, but it can affect adults, too. A rotavirus infection causes a condition called viral gastroenteritis. A rotavirus vaccine is available for children, but it's possible to ...
Rubella
Rubella Does this test have other names? German measles, rubella antibody test, 3-day measles What is this test? This test measures the amount of rubella antibodies in your blood to see if you have immunity against the rubella virus. Rubella is also called the German measles. It is a very contagious disease that's easily spread through coughing, sneezing, and spitting. In young children, rubella is usually a mild disease with symptoms that include sore throat and fever. Adults may have pink eye, headach...
Rubeola Antibody (Blood)
Rubeola Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? Test for measles-specific IgM antibody What is this test? This test looks for an antibody called measles-specific IgM in your blood. If you have been exposed to the rubeola virus, your body may have made this antibody. The rubeola virus causes measles, an extremely contagious disease. It is spread through the air in droplets after people cough or sneeze. Thirty percent of people who catch the measles have complications. These include pneumonia, d...
Salicylate (Blood)
Salicylate (Blood) Does this test have other names? Salicylate serum test, serum salicylate level test, serum salicylate concentration test What is this test? This is a blood test to check for salicylate intoxication, which is usually caused by an overdose of aspirin. This test is also used to check for the correct aspirin dose in people who are given high doses of aspirin to treat inflammation from arthritis. Aspirin contains acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Other salicylates are found in some wart removers...
Salmonella Culture (Stool)
Salmonella Culture (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool culture What is this test? This test looks for salmonella bacteria in your stool. Having these bacteria in your stool means you have a salmonella infection. Salmonella infection takes many forms, but the most common in the U.S. is gastroenteritis, also called a "stomach bug." You can get it if you eat food contaminated by animal feces. Food is often contaminated during processing, such as when raw meat comes in contact with other foods. U...
Semen Analysis
Semen Analysis Does this test have other names? Semen testing What is this test? This is a series of tests that looks at how healthy your semen and sperm are. Male infertility is often caused by low sperm count, abnormal sperm movement, or weak sperm. If you and your partner are trying to conceive, the results of this test can help you figure out the next steps you may want to take. Why do I need this test? You may have a semen analysis if you and your partner haven't been able to conceive. You may also...
Serotonin
Serotonin Does this test have other names? 5-HT test What is this test? This test is sometimes used to help to diagnose carcinoid syndrome. This problem can occur in people with carcinoid tumors. These tumors grow from a certain type of cell, and they usually show up in the lungs, stomach, small intestine, rectum, and appendix. Some carcinoid tumors can convert a substance made from an amino acid in the body called tryptophan into a chemical called serotonin. Serotonin is further broken down to 5-HIAA. ...
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (Blood)
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (Blood) Does this test have other names? SHBG blood test What is this test? This test measures the level of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in your blood. SHBG is a protein made by your liver. It binds tightly to 3 sex hormones found in both men and women. These hormones are estrogen; dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and testosterone. SHBG carries these three hormones throughout your blood. Although SHBG binds 3 hormones, the hormone that's critical in this test is testosteron...
Sjogren Antibody (Blood)
Sjögren Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? SS-A (or Ro), SS-B (or La) What is this test? This is a blood test for Sjögren syndrome. This condition is an autoimmune disease that makes it hard for your glands to make enough moisture. The condition causes discomfort by drying out mucous membranes, including the ones in the mouth, eyes, nose, lungs, and vagina. Sjögren may also affect the joints, kidneys, and the nervous, vascular, respiratory, and digestive systems. To help diagnose the cond...
Sodium (Blood)
Sodium (Blood) Does this test have other names? Na test What is this test? This test measures the levels of sodium in your blood. Sodium is an element needed for your body's cells to work correctly. You can get the sodium you need through your diet. Sodium helps make sure that your nerves and muscles can work as they should. Sodium is also important because it helps maintain the correct balance of fluids in your body, so that you don't have too much water. The kidneys help keep sodium at a healthy level...
Sodium (Urine)
Sodium (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine sodium test, Na test What is this test? This test measures the amount of sodium, or salt, in your urine. Sodium is in almost everything you eat. It's found in many processed foods, like pretzels and chips. It's even in some medicines. Your body needs some sodium to balance other minerals that circulate in your blood and to carry nutrients to different parts of your body. If you get too much sodium, your kidneys normally absorb it and clear it from yo...
Sputum Culture
Sputum Culture Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test finds out what's causing your lung infection. Sputum, or phlegm, is the mucus that settles in the lower airways of your lungs when you have an infection or a chronic illness. A lung infection like pneumonia can cause you to cough up phlegm. Other conditions, including bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), can also cause coughing and make it difficult to breathe. This test helps your healthcare pro...
Stool Culture
Stool Culture Does this test have other names? Stool test, stool sample What is this test? This test looks for bacteria, viruses, and other germs in your stool. This test can help find out what's causing a digestive tract infection. For this test, your stool sample is put in a special container with the nutrients that bacteria or other germs need to grow. The lab waits until enough germs are present to be seen under a microscope. Once your healthcare provider knows the type of germ causing your infectio...
Strep Antistreptolysin O Titer (Blood)
Strep Antistreptolysin O Titer (Blood) Does this test have other names? ASO titer What is this test? This test looks for antibodies that your body made while fighting off group A Streptococcus bacteria. These are antibodies against a substance called streptolysin O, made by the bacteria. Group A Streptococcus can cause strep throat and other infections that can eventually lead to other, more serious, conditions. These include rheumatic fever and streptococcal glomerulonephritis, a disorder of the kidney...
Strep Screen (Rapid)
Strep Screen (Rapid) Does this test have other names? Throat swab, rapid strep test, rapid antigen test What is this test? The rapid strep screen is used to test for bacteria called group A streptococcus. Group A streptococcus bacteria cause illnesses such as strep throat and scarlet fever—a rash that may occur after a case of strep throat. Strep throat and scarlet fever can cause a number of symptoms, particularly a fever and a sore throat. These illnesses are quite contagious and require antibiotics t...
T and B Lymphocyte and Natural Killer Cell Profile
T and B Lymphocyte and Natural Killer Cell Profile Does this test have other names? Lymphocyte profile, lymphocyte subset panel What is this test? This test finds and counts 3 types of white blood cells in your blood. Your body makes several types of white blood cells to fight off disease or illness. Lymphocytes are one type of white blood cell. They help your immune system by making antibodies and other substances that battle cancer and infections and by killing cells that are infected or that are fore...
Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase
Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase Does this test have other names? Bone turnover marker, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, TRAP What is this test? This test looks for the chemical tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in your blood. This test can also be done on bone marrow. TRAP can appear in your blood if you have hairy cell leukemia, a kind of cancer that attacks your blood and bone marrow. It can also appear when bone is broken down in your body, as in the disease osteoporosis or in can...
Tay-Sachs Disease
Tay-Sachs Disease Does this test have other names? Tay-Sachs carrier screening, Tay-Sachs prenatal testing, Tay-Sachs disease DNA analysis What is this test? This test looks for specific gene changes in a sample of your blood. If you are already pregnant, the test looks at a sample of the fetus' blood. These gene changes (mutations) cause most cases of Tay-Sachs disease. Tay-Sachs disease is caused by a lack of a vital enzyme, Hex A (hexosaminidase-A). This can cause a fatty substance called GM2 ganglio...
Tegretol (Blood)
Tegretol (Blood) Does this test have other names? Carbamazepine level What is this test? This test measures the amount of the medicine carbamazepine in your blood. Carbamazepine is the generic name of a medicine used to treat epilepsy, mania, bipolar disorder, and pain. Brand names include Tegretol, Carbatrol, and Equetro. Certain people have serious but rare skin reactions during the first 4 months of taking this medicine. Some of these reactions can be fatal. The FDA says that people at risk for these...
Tetanus Antibody
Tetanus Antibody Does this test have other names? Vaccine responsiveness test What is this test? This test looks for tetanus antibody in your blood. Tetanus is a serious disease caused by the toxin from Clostridium tetani bacteria. The toxin makes its way into the nervous system and causes muscle spasms and rigid muscles. If you have been vaccinated for tetanus in the past, this test should show that you have enough antibodies against the disease. If your levels are too low, you will be revaccinated. Th...
Theophylline
Theophylline Does this test have other names? Serum theophylline concentrations, blood theophylline level What is this test? This test measures the level of theophylline in your blood. Theophylline is a chemical similar to caffeine. It's sometimes used as a medicine to treat lung conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchiolitis. Sometimes it's prescribed to babies, especially premature infants, to help their breathing and lung function. Theophylline reduces inflammatio...
Thrombin Time
Thrombin Time Does this test have other names? Thrombin clotting time, TCT What is this test? Blood clotting is an important step in healing from an injury, such as a cut. Forming a blood clot is a complicated process. It involves many blood components that must interact in a specific order. Thrombin time is a measure of how long the blood's plasma, or the liquid portion of the blood, takes to form a clot. This test gives information about how well one particular blood component called fibrinogen is wor...
Thyroid Antibody
Thyroid Antibody Does this test have other names? TPO Abs, Tg Abs, TSH-Rs Abs What is this test? This test measures the amount of thyroid antibodies in your blood. The test can help find out whether you have a problem with your thyroid. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat above your collarbone. The thyroid makes two hormones, T3 and T4. These hormones affect your energy levels, mood, weight, and other important aspects of your health. In some people, the immune system m...
Thyroid Antithyroglobulin Antibody
Thyroid Antithyroglobulin Antibody Does this test have other names? Thyroid antibody test, thyroglobulin antibody test What is this test? This blood test looks for antibodies made by your body in response to thyroglobulin, a protein made by the thyroid gland. The thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland in the lower-front of your neck that makes the hormones T3 and T4. These hormones help control your metabolism, the process in which your body uses energy. The thyroglobulin antibody test can help diag...
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Does this test have other names? TSH, thyrotropin test What is this test? This is a blood test that measures your level of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Healthcare providers use this test to diagnose problems affecting the thyroid. Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat above your collarbones. The thyroid makes two hormones, T3 and T4, that affect your energy levels, mood, weight, and other important parts of your health. The pituitary glan...
TORCH Panel
TORCH Panel Does this test have other names? TORCH screen What is this test? The TORCH panel test is used to help diagnose infections that could harm the fetus during pregnancy. TORCH is an acronym of the 5 infections covered in the screening: T oxoplasmosis. This infection is caused by a parasite commonly picked up from cat stools. Babies can get congenital toxoplasmosis. If untreated, it can cause blindness, deafness, seizures, and intellectual disability. O ther, including syphilis. Syphilis is a sex...
Total and Free Carnitine
Total and Free Carnitine Does this test have other names? Quantitative plasma carnitine, plasma carnitine, plasma acylcarnitine analysis What is this test? This test measures the amount of a substance called carnitine in your blood. It looks at how much usable or "free" carnitine you have. It compares that with the total amount in your body. Carnitine is a compound that's present in nearly every part of your body. Your cells normally use the fats in your body for energy. Without carnitine, your body has...
Total and Free Insulin (Blood)
Total and Free Insulin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum insulin level What is this test? This blood test measures two types of insulin in your body: total and free. Insulin is found in your body in many forms. Bound insulin is attached to other proteins. This often occurs in people with diabetes who are treated with insulin. Free insulin is not attached to other proteins. Total insulin measures both free and bound insulin. The hormone insulin plays a key role in keeping your blood sugar at...
Total Bilirubin (Blood)
Total Bilirubin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Total serum bilirubin, TSB What is this test? This is a blood test that measures the amount of a substance called bilirubin. This test is used to find out how well your liver is working. It is often given as part of a panel of tests that measure liver function. A small amount of bilirubin in your blood is normal, but a high level may be a sign of liver disease. The liver makes bile to help you digest food, and bile contains bilirubin. Most bilirub...
Total Copper (Blood)
Total Copper (Blood) Does this test have other names? Total copper serum test What is this test? This test measures the total amount of copper in your blood. Normally most of the copper in your blood is carried by a protein called ceruloplasmin. Adults have 50 and 80 milligrams (mg) of copper in their body, mostly in muscle and the liver. Copper helps make melanin, bone, and connective tissue. It also helps with many other processes in your body. You normally get copper through your diet, in foods like ...
Total Protein and A/G Ratio
Total Protein and A/G Ratio Does this test have other names? Albumin/globulin ratio What is this test? This is a blood test to measure the levels of protein in your body. Your liver makes most of the proteins that are found in your blood. Albumin is one major type of protein. Albumin carries many other substances around your system, including medicines and products your body makes. Another kind of protein called globulin has other functions in your body. This test provides information about the amount o...
Total Testosterone
Total Testosterone Does this test have other names? Testosterone (total), serum testosterone What is this test? This test measures the level of the hormone testosterone in your blood. Testosterone is a male sex hormone (androgen) that helps male features develop. Testosterone is made in the testes and the adrenal glands. It causes the changes that occur in boys during puberty. Testosterone helps hair and muscles to grow. It also helps the penis and testes to grow. Testosterone also causes a boy's voice ...
Toxoplasma Gondii (Amniotic Fluid)
Toxoplasma Gondii (Amniotic Fluid) Does this test have other names? Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Toxoplasma gondii DNA What is this test? This test is used to diagnose Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in the fetus. T. gondii is a parasite that can infect people, but infections often don't cause any symptoms. People can become infected after eating infected undercooked meat, especially lamb, venison, or pork, or drinking contaminated water. People can also be exposed to the parasite by clea...
Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody
Toxoplasma Gondii Antibody Does this test have other names? Immunoglobulin G antibodies, immunoglobulin M antibodies, Sabin-Feldman dye test, ELISA, IFA test, agglutination test What is this test? This test looks for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection in your blood. T. gondii is a parasite that can infect people when they: Eat infected meat, especially lamb, venison, or pork, that hasn't been thoroughly cooked Eat food contaminated by knives, utensils, cutting boards, or other fo...
Transferrin
Transferrin Does this test have other names? Total iron-binding capacity, TIBC, transferrin saturation What is this test? This test measures the amount of the protein transferrin in your blood. Your liver makes transferrin. It creates much more when your body's stores of iron run low. Iron plays many important roles in your body, including helping your red blood cells carry oxygen. Nearly all the iron in your body is normally attached to transferrin. Normally, your body carefully monitors your iron leve...
Trichomonas Vaginalis (Discharge)
Trichomonas Vaginalis (Discharge) Does this test have other names? Trichomonas culture, testing for "trich" (pronounced "trick"), trichomoniasis, TV What is this test? This test looks for the Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) parasite. This parasite causes a sexually transmitted disease (STD) called trichomoniasis. This is a common type of STD. The parasite is more likely to infect women than men. Experts have traditionally thought it causes few complications. But during pregnancy, it can raise a wom...
Tricyclic Antidepressant Screen
Tricyclic Antidepressant Screen Does this test have other names? Tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) testing What is this test? This test is used to check a sample of blood or urine for tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). Healthcare providers prescribe these medicines for depression and a number of other problems. These include anxiety, headaches, and nerve-related pain. These medicines can be helpful in normal doses. But taking too much can be fatal. These medicines are often the cause of death in prescriptio...
Triglycerides
Triglycerides Does this test have other names? Lipid panel, fasting lipoprotein panel What is this test? This test measures the amount of triglycerides in your blood. Triglycerides are one of several types of fats in your blood. Other kinds are LDL ("bad") cholesterol and HDL ("good") cholesterol. Knowing your triglyceride level is important, especially if you have diabetes, are overweight or a smoker, or are mostly inactive. High triglyceride levels may put you at greater risk for a heart attack or str...
Troponin
Troponin Does this test have other names? Cardiac troponin (cTn), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT) What is this test? This test measures the amount of the protein troponin in your blood. Troponin is found in cells in your heart muscle. When these cells are injured—most often because the heart isn't getting enough oxygen and nutrients—they can release troponin and other substances into the blood. Measuring your levels of troponin often can quickly tell your healthcare provider whether...
Trypsin (Blood)
Trypsin (Blood) Does this test have other names? Trypsinogen What is this test? This test measures levels of trypsin in your blood to see if you have pancreatitis. Your pancreas is an organ in your belly (abdomen). It lies behind your stomach. One of its jobs is to make enzymes that go into your small intestine to help you digest foods. The pancreas can become inflamed (pancreatitis). This can occur suddenly (acute pancreatitis). Or it can grow worse over a longer time (chronic pancreatitis). During acu...
Trypsin/Chymotrypsin (Stool)
Trypsin/Chymotrypsin (Stool) Does this test have other names? Test for concentration of pancreatic enzymes, direct pancreatic enzyme measurement What is this test? This test checks your stool sample for trypsin and chymotrypsin, two enzymes made by the pancreas. The test measures how well your pancreas is working if you have cystic fibrosis (CF). CF stops the pancreas from making its normal digestive enzymes. In most cases, this problem shows up during the first years of life. Children with CF often hav...
Two-Hour Postprandial Glucose
Two-Hour Postprandial Glucose Does this test have other names? Glucose, postprandial; glucose, two-hour postprandial; two-hour PPG; two-hour postprandial blood sugar What is this test? This is a blood test to check for diabetes. If you have diabetes, your body doesn't make enough insulin to keep your blood sugar in check. This means your blood sugar levels are too high, and over time this can lead to serious health problems including nerve and eye damage. This test is done to see how your body responds ...
Uniparental Disomy
Uniparental Disomy Does this test have other names? Genetic testing for Angelman syndrome, genetic testing for Prader-Willi syndrome What is this test? This is a blood test used to see if your child has certain chromosome changes. Normally, people have 23 pairs of chromosomes in their cells. In each pair, one chromosome comes from their father and one from their mother. These chromosomes contain genes. Sometimes people will inherit two copies of a chromosome or a part of a chromosome from their mother o...
Urea Nitrogen Clearance (Urine)
Urea Nitrogen Clearance (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urine urea nitrogen, 24-hour urine test What is this test? This test measures the amount of urea nitrogen in your urine. Urea nitrogen is a waste product made when your liver breaks down protein. It's carried in your blood, filtered out by your kidneys, and removed from your body in your urine. If your liver isn't healthy, it may not break down proteins the way it should. And if your kidneys aren't healthy, they may not properly filter ure...
Uric Acid (Blood)
Uric Acid (Blood) Does this test have other names? Serum uric acid What is this test? This test measures the amount of uric acid in your blood. Uric acid is a normal bodily waste product. It forms when chemicals called purines break down. Purines are a natural substance found in the body and are also found in many foods such as liver, shellfish, and alcohol. They can also be formed in the body when DNA is broken down. When purines are broken down to uric acid in the blood, the body gets rid of it when y...
Uric Acid (Synovial Fluid)
Uric Acid (Synovial Fluid) Does this test have other names? Synovial fluid analysis What is this test? The uric acid test measures levels of uric acid that can collect in joint fluid. Uric acid is a normal bodily waste product. It forms when chemicals called purines break down. Purines are a natural substance found in the body and are also found in many foods such as liver, shellfish, and alcohol. They can also be formed in the body when DNA is broken down. When purines are broken down to uric acid in t...
Uric Acid (Urine)
Uric Acid (Urine) Does this test have other names? Urinalysis, 24-hour urinalysis What is this test? This test looks for uric acid in your urine. Uric acid is a normal bodily waste product. It forms when chemicals called purines break down. Purines are a natural substance found in the body and are also found in many foods such as liver, shellfish, and alcohol. They can also be formed in the body when DNA is broken down. When purines are broken down to uric acid in the blood, the body gets rid of it when...
Urine Cytology
Urine Cytology Does this test have other names? Urine examination with microscope What is this test? This test looks at a sample of your urine to see if it contains abnormal cells. The test is used to diagnose cancers of the urinary tract. These include cancers of the kidney, bladder, ureter, and urethra, the tube through which urine leaves the bladder when you urinate. A specially trained healthcare provider called a pathologist looks at the cells from your urine sample under a microscope. Cancer cells...
Urine Protein (Dipstick)
Urine Protein (Dipstick) Does this test have other names? Reagent strip urinalysis, urine albumin What is this test? This test checks the amount of protein in your urine. Your urine normally has a small amount of protein. Much of this protein is the type called albumin, but more than 200 other types of protein may be found in urine. When your body loses large amounts of protein in the urine, it can be because of dehydration, strenuous exercise, fever, or exposure to cold temperatures. Extra protein in t...
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody Does this test have other names? Serum varicella immunoglobulin G antibody level What is this test? This test looks for antibodies in your blood that your body makes against the varicella-zoster virus. The varicella-zoster virus is very contagious. It can cause two health problems: chickenpox and shingles. When you become infected with the virus for the first time, it causes chickenpox. After having chickenpox, most people become immune to the virus for the rest of their ...
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Does this test have other names? VEGF, vascular permeability factor, VPF What is this test? This test measures the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in your blood. VEGF is a substance that helps encourage the growth of new blood vessels. Your body makes more VEGF in certain cases. For example, if your tissues aren't getting enough oxygen, they may make more VEGF so that new blood vessels grow to bring in more oxygen. Your lungs contain VEGF because go...
VDRL (CSF)
VDRL (CSF) Does this test have other names? CSF VDRL, neurosyphilis test, neurosyphilis detection test What is this test? This test looks for signs of neurosyphilis in your cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Syphilis is a bacterial infection. It's a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can also be spread from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Neurosyphilis happens when syphilis isn't treated. It eventually affects the spinal cord, brain, and membranes surrounding the brain. Having HIV or AIDS increases the risk...
Viral Culture
Viral Culture Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test checks to see whether an infection is caused by a bacterium or a virus. It can also tell which specific virus is causing your infection. Viral infections can cause illnesses anywhere in the body. This includes the skin, digestive tract, urinary tract, brain, lungs, and eyes. These illnesses can range from minor problems to serious diseases. Viral cultures are done in different ways, depending on your condition and the virus ...
Vitamin B-12 and Folate
Vitamin B-12 and Folate Does this test have other names? Cobalamin, Cbl, folic acid, FA What is this test? This test measures the levels of vitamin B-12 and folate in your blood. Your body needs vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, and folate, also called folic acid, to function normally. Both nutrients play important roles in creating red blood cells and making DNA and RNA to help build cells. B-12 also helps your nervous system function as it should. B-12 is found in fortified cereals and animal produ...
Vitamin D
Vitamin D Does this test have other names? 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-high-DROX-ee-VIE-tuh-min D), 25(OH)D What is this test? Vitamin D is mainly found in fortified dairy foods, juice, breakfast cereal, and certain fish. This vitamin plays many roles in the body. But because it helps the body absorb calcium from foods and supplements, it's particularly important for bone health. Vitamin D has many additional roles in the body. Vitamin D comes in several forms. When ultraviolet light, such as sunlight, hits...
VLDL Cholesterol
VLDL Cholesterol Does this test have other names? Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol test What is this test? This test measures the amount of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in your blood. VLDL cholesterol is a type of blood fat. It's considered one of the "bad" forms of cholesterol, along with LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. This is because high levels cholesterol can clog your arteries and lead to a heart attack. Sixty percent of a VLDL particle is a triglyceride, This test is usually use...
Von Willebrand Panel
Von Willebrand Panel Does this test have other names? von Willebrand factor antigen test, von Willebrand factor activity test, ristocetin cofactor activity test, factor VIII coagulant activity test What is this test? This panel of tests is used to diagnose von Willebrand disease. This is a bleeding disorder that causes excessive bleeding from minor injuries or normal physical processes such as menstruation. It's the most common inherited bleeding disorder, but few people with the disease have symptoms. ...
West Nile Virus Antibody (Blood)
West Nile Virus Antibody (Blood) Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This is a blood test that checks for West Nile virus (WNV). This is a viral infection that usually affects birds. The virus spreads when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a human. An infected mother may pass the virus along to her fetus during pregnancy or to her infant during breastfeeding. Some people may get the virus from infected blood or organs. WNV is most common during the summer and fall. Abo...
Western Equine Encephalitis
Western Equine Encephalitis (CSF) Does this test have other names? Lumbar puncture What is this test? This test looks for the virus that causes Western equine encephalitis. This is a disease that is spread through bites from infected mosquitoes. Babies and young children who are infected are more likely to develop encephalitis, or inflammation of the brain. Adults are less likely to develop this complication. Horses can also become infected. This test uses a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This flu...
White Blood Cell (Stool)
White Blood Cell (Stool) Does this test have other names? Stool white blood cell test, fecal leukocyte (LOO-koh-site) test, FLT What is this test? This test looks for white blood cells in your stool. This can help your healthcare provider diagnose the cause of inflammatory diarrhea. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, are immune system cells that can show up in the stool if you have inflammatory diarrhea. This type of diarrhea may be a symptom of an infection caused by bacteria such as shigella, ...
White Cell Count
White Cell Count Does this test have other names? WBC count What is this test? This test measures the number of white blood cells (WBCs) in your blood. Cells in your bone marrow make white blood cells and release them into the bloodstream to help you fight infection. White blood cells are part of your body's immune system, which keeps you healthy and makes you well when you get sick. White blood cells work to destroy any foreign virus, fungus, or bacteria that enter your body and threaten to make you si...
Wound Culture
Wound Culture Does this test have other names? No. What is this test? This test looks for bacteria or other organisms in a wound. The test is used to find out if a wound is infected. It can also see the type of organism that's causing the infection. This test requires a small sample of cells or fluid from a wound. Then the sample is cultured and looked at under a microscope to look for bacteria or other organisms. An infected wound may need special treatment, such as antibiotics. The antibiotics stop th...
Yersinia (Stool)
Yersinia (Stool) Does this test have other names? Yersiniosis test, Yersinia stool culture What is this test? This test checks for an infection from the Yersinia bacteria. This infection is also called yersiniosis. Most cases of infection in the U.S. are from a type of bacteria called Yersinia enterocolitica. This illness is most common in children. It tends to strike more often during the winter. Eating or handling undercooked pork—especially pork chitterlings, or intestines—raises the risk for this in...